Internet of Things Heterogeneous Interoperable Network Architecture Design

Publication: ResearchPh.D. thesis

Abstract

Internet of Thing‘s (IoT) state of the art deduce that there is no mature Internet of Things architecture available. Thesis contributes an abstract generic IoT system reference architecture development with specifications. Novelties of thesis are proposed solutions and implementations for Scalability, heterogeneous interoperability, security and extension of IoT architecture for rural, poor and catastrophic (RPC) areas. VLC is proposed and proved as one of the suitable internetwork means to overcome drawbacks of rural and catastrophic areas.
Various operations or functional requirements, of IoT architecture are determined by finding detailed execution sequence of operations. Complete IoT system‘s software and hardware component topology is explained with component and deployment diagrams respectively. IoT architecture constraints or non-functional requirements such as specifications, scalability, security and privacy, data volumes, device adaptability,interoperability, power consumption, self awareness, and discovery mechanisms features are analyzed. Software architecture is developed using requirement analysis, of functional and non functional requirements. Abstract IoT architecture model is validated using Arduino single-board microcontroller, for monitoring light intensity using LDR.
As a first non functional feature scalability of architecture is considered. Some of the IoT applications (all sensors based) send the same information repeatedly or within a specific range of values. It is proved that reduction of data at a source will result in huge vertical scalability and indirectly horizontal also.
Second non functional feature contributes in heterogeneous interoperable network architecture for constrained Things. To eliminate increasing number of gateways, Wi-Fi access point with Bluetooth, Zigbee (new access point is called as BZ-Fi) is proposed. Co-existence of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Zigbee network technologies results in interference. To reduce the interference, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed tobe implemented in Bluetooth and Zigbee. The proposed network architecture allows to travel and to communicate the Bluetooth and Zigbee nodes in the Wi-Fi network without Wi-Fi interface in them.
Third non functional feature finds security architecture for all types of grey holes attacks (DoS attack). The proposed architecture is based on algorithm of designed network layer protocol. The results verifies near about 100% recovery in the packet drop rate. Theuniqueness of the algorithm is in three random tests, whose implementation decision is taken at run time, along with the first checking for a fixed number of times.
It is shown that the famous Okumura–Hata model is insufficient for defining all ICT areas. A new ICT area model is proposed for rural, poor and catastrophic (applicable for any area) areas. These definitions help in understanding development of required area from ICT point of view.
VLC overcomes issues of long distance coverage, operating cost, repeated investments in the catastrophic area and a fast network connection, can be overcome by using handy cam for a long distance (tens of KMs expected) outdoor communication. Experimentation is done for various speeds and at various times.
Number of challenges and issues of IoT architecture are discussed in detail, for future research.
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Details

Internet of Thing‘s (IoT) state of the art deduce that there is no mature Internet of Things architecture available. Thesis contributes an abstract generic IoT system reference architecture development with specifications. Novelties of thesis are proposed solutions and implementations for Scalability, heterogeneous interoperability, security and extension of IoT architecture for rural, poor and catastrophic (RPC) areas. VLC is proposed and proved as one of the suitable internetwork means to overcome drawbacks of rural and catastrophic areas.
Various operations or functional requirements, of IoT architecture are determined by finding detailed execution sequence of operations. Complete IoT system‘s software and hardware component topology is explained with component and deployment diagrams respectively. IoT architecture constraints or non-functional requirements such as specifications, scalability, security and privacy, data volumes, device adaptability,interoperability, power consumption, self awareness, and discovery mechanisms features are analyzed. Software architecture is developed using requirement analysis, of functional and non functional requirements. Abstract IoT architecture model is validated using Arduino single-board microcontroller, for monitoring light intensity using LDR.
As a first non functional feature scalability of architecture is considered. Some of the IoT applications (all sensors based) send the same information repeatedly or within a specific range of values. It is proved that reduction of data at a source will result in huge vertical scalability and indirectly horizontal also.
Second non functional feature contributes in heterogeneous interoperable network architecture for constrained Things. To eliminate increasing number of gateways, Wi-Fi access point with Bluetooth, Zigbee (new access point is called as BZ-Fi) is proposed. Co-existence of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Zigbee network technologies results in interference. To reduce the interference, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed tobe implemented in Bluetooth and Zigbee. The proposed network architecture allows to travel and to communicate the Bluetooth and Zigbee nodes in the Wi-Fi network without Wi-Fi interface in them.
Third non functional feature finds security architecture for all types of grey holes attacks (DoS attack). The proposed architecture is based on algorithm of designed network layer protocol. The results verifies near about 100% recovery in the packet drop rate. Theuniqueness of the algorithm is in three random tests, whose implementation decision is taken at run time, along with the first checking for a fixed number of times.
It is shown that the famous Okumura–Hata model is insufficient for defining all ICT areas. A new ICT area model is proposed for rural, poor and catastrophic (applicable for any area) areas. These definitions help in understanding development of required area from ICT point of view.
VLC overcomes issues of long distance coverage, operating cost, repeated investments in the catastrophic area and a fast network connection, can be overcome by using handy cam for a long distance (tens of KMs expected) outdoor communication. Experimentation is done for various speeds and at various times.
Number of challenges and issues of IoT architecture are discussed in detail, for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages157
ISBN (print)978-87-7152-084-2
StatePublished - 2014

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