Offshore Wind Power: Grid Connection and Reliability

Research output: Book/ReportPh.D. thesisResearch

Abstract

The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore wind farms are normally more difficult to access than onshore installations.

Reliability and generation of a wind farm depends on wind speed conditions, the wind turbines themselves, the system layout and the grid connection; besides, the offshore environment poses new challenges to face for the installers, such as the dimension of the wind farm and the difficulty of reaching failed components in case of harsh weather. Each component that affects the assessment must be included and proper models for them are investigated in this thesis.

The project provides a survey of available offshore wind farm reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated.

The modelling is then extended to the entire power system considering conventional power plants, distributed generation based on wind energy and CHP technology as well as the load and transmission facilities. In particular, the different models are used to represent two well-known test systems, the RBTS and the IEEE-RTS, and to calculate their reliability in order to verify the considered representations by comparing the obtained reliability results with the ones available in literature. Moreover, the reliability of the power system in West Denmark is investigated considering its current scenario and some possible future developments, where onshore as well as offshore wind generation and the load increase, whereas some conventional power plants might be dismantled. The discussed reliability results refer both to the generation adequacy assessment and to the composite reliability analysis in order to provide a different and broad set of results.

The investigations of this work are carried out by performing simulations of steady-state conditions as well as dedicated reliability analyses using Matlab and the power system analysis tool Power Factory from DIgSILENT.

Results of these different analyses should provide new instruments and considerations in order to perform reliability evaluations of power systems in which a large amount of wind energy is incorporated. The results can also be used to evaluate which further aspects may be relevant for the system operator and the wind farm owner when large wind farms are connected to the transmission system and also to analyse the reliability of future configurations of power systems when a large amount of wind energy is injected.
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The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore wind farms are normally more difficult to access than onshore installations.

Reliability and generation of a wind farm depends on wind speed conditions, the wind turbines themselves, the system layout and the grid connection; besides, the offshore environment poses new challenges to face for the installers, such as the dimension of the wind farm and the difficulty of reaching failed components in case of harsh weather. Each component that affects the assessment must be included and proper models for them are investigated in this thesis.

The project provides a survey of available offshore wind farm reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated.

The modelling is then extended to the entire power system considering conventional power plants, distributed generation based on wind energy and CHP technology as well as the load and transmission facilities. In particular, the different models are used to represent two well-known test systems, the RBTS and the IEEE-RTS, and to calculate their reliability in order to verify the considered representations by comparing the obtained reliability results with the ones available in literature. Moreover, the reliability of the power system in West Denmark is investigated considering its current scenario and some possible future developments, where onshore as well as offshore wind generation and the load increase, whereas some conventional power plants might be dismantled. The discussed reliability results refer both to the generation adequacy assessment and to the composite reliability analysis in order to provide a different and broad set of results.

The investigations of this work are carried out by performing simulations of steady-state conditions as well as dedicated reliability analyses using Matlab and the power system analysis tool Power Factory from DIgSILENT.

Results of these different analyses should provide new instruments and considerations in order to perform reliability evaluations of power systems in which a large amount of wind energy is incorporated. The results can also be used to evaluate which further aspects may be relevant for the system operator and the wind farm owner when large wind farms are connected to the transmission system and also to analyse the reliability of future configurations of power systems when a large amount of wind energy is injected.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationAalborg
PublisherDepartment of Energy Engineering, Aalborg University
Number of pages242
ISBN (Print)978-87-89179-72-8
StatePublished - 2008
Publication categoryResearch

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