Delivering the pain: an overview of the type III secretion system with special consideration for aquatic pathogens

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Abstract Gram-negative bacteria are known to subvert eukaryotic cell physiological mechanisms using a wide array of virulence factors, among which the type three-secretion system (T3SS) is often one of the most important. The T3SS constitutes a needle-like apparatus that the bacterium uses to inject a diverse set of effector proteins directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells where they can hamper the host cellular machinery for a variety of purposes. While the structure of the T3SS is somewhat conserved and well described, effector proteins are much more diverse and specific for each pathogen. The T3SS can remodel the cytoskeleton integrity to promote intracellular invasion, as well as silence specific eukaryotic cell signals, notably to hinder or elude the immune response and cause apoptosis. This is also the case in aquatic bacterial pathogens where the T3SS can often play a central role in the establishment of disease, although it remains understudied in several species of important fish pathogens, notably in Yersinia ruckeri. In the present review, we summarise what is known of the T3SS, with a special focus on aquatic pathogens and suggest some possible avenues for research including the potential to target the T3SS for the development of new anti-virulence drugs.
Dato for tilgængelighed2021