Automating inspection of critical infrastructure such as sewer systems will help utilities optimize maintenance and replacement schedules. The current inspection process consists of manual reviews of video as an operator controls a sewer inspection vehicle remotely. The process is slow, labor-intensive, and expensive and presents a huge potential for automation. With this work, we address a central component of the next generation of robotic inspection of sewers, namely the choice of 3D sensing technology. We investigate three prominent techniques for 3D vision: passive stereo, active stereo, and time-of-flight (ToF). The Realsense D435 camera is chosen as the representative of the first two techniques wheres the PMD CamBoard pico flexx represents ToF. The 3D reconstruction performance of the sensors is assessed in both a laboratory setup and in an outdoor above-ground setup. The acquired point clouds from the sensors are compared with reference 3D models using the cloud-to-mesh metric. The reconstruction performance of the sensors is tested with respect to different illuminance levels and different levels of water in the pipes. The results of the tests show that the ToF-based point cloud from the pico flexx is superior to the output of the active and passive stereo cameras.
Udgave nummer7
Antal sider27
StatusUdgivet - 6 apr. 2021