Subcutaneous emphysema, the presence of air under the subcutaneous tissues, often arises in relation to pneumothorax, including iatrogenic pneumothorax. It can arise as a consequence of chest drain insertion and removal. This case report describes worsening of subcutaneous emphysema subsequent to chest drain removal, leading to tardive and life-threatening subcutaneous emphysema. There are few international guidelines describing chest drain removal and there are few reports describing tardive subcutaneous emphysema. These areas need further exploration using evidence-based research in order to develop a consensus on treatment options.
Ringvold, C. H. O., & Weinreich, U. M. (2019). A case report of tardive subcutaneous emphysema in relation to iatrogenic pneumothorax. Sage Open Medical Case Reports, 7, [2050313X19870970]. https://doi.org/10.1177/2050313X19870970