A Comparative Analysis of NZEB Energy Performance Requirements for Residential Buildings in Denmark, Estonia and Finland

Raimo Simson*, Kirsten Engelund Thomsen, Kim Bjarne Wittchen, Jarek Kurnitski


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Direct comparison of building energy performance levels between countries is usually not possible due to differences in climatic conditions, calculation methods, primary energy (PE) weighing factors and input data. This paper aims to analyse performance requirements and calculation methodology for residential Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in Oceanic and Nordic climate zone countries according to European Commission (EC) recommended values, focusing on Denmark, Estonia, and Finland. Performance levels for each country are compared with European Commission (EC) recommended values (EU 2016/1318) using normalization and benchmarking through detailed computer simulations. The study is based on two representative buildings: a Danish single-family house and an Estonian apartment building, both designed to meet national NZEB requirements. The buildings were modelled using national and standardized (EN 16798-1:2019) methodologies, including country-specific climate and input data. The simulated performances were compared with EC threshold values, modified, and re-calculated to meet the NZEB PE targets of each country. To match the recommended energy performance, on-site renewable energy production using photovoltaic panels was increased or decreased accordingly. Results show that Estonian requirements for NZEB fulfil the EC NZEB recommendation. In the warmer, Oceanic climate zone it was however impossible to fulfil EC NZEB even with Estonian NZEB. This indicates that PE recommendations are too strict for colder Oceanic locations, represented in this paper by the Copenhagen climate.
TitelCold Climate HVAC & Energy 2021
RedaktørerJ. Kurnitski, M. Thalfeldt
Antal sider12
ForlagEDP Sciences
Publikationsdato29 mar. 2021
StatusUdgivet - 29 mar. 2021
Begivenhed2021 Cold Climate HVAC and Energy 2021 - Tallinn, Estland
Varighed: 18 apr. 202121 apr. 2021


Konference2021 Cold Climate HVAC and Energy 2021
NavnE3S Web of Conferences

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the Nordic Energy Research, (Project No.: 96752), by the Estonian Centre of Excellence in Zero Energy and Resource Efficient Smart Buildings and Districts, ZEBE, grant 2014-2020.4.01.15-0016 funded by the European Regional Development Fund and by the European Commission through the H2020 project Finest Twins (grant No. 856602).

Publisher Copyright:
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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