PURPOSE: To review and integrate the literature on mental-health-related patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and routine outcome measures (ROMs), namely in the domains of goals, characteristics, implementation, settings, measurements and barriers. PROM/ROM aims mainly to ascertain treatment impact in routine clinical practice through systematic service users' health assessment using standardized self-report, caretaker and/or provider assessment.
DATA SOURCES: Psych INFO and PubMed including Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE Psychiatry and Elsevier Science's Direct.
STUDY SELECTION: Systemized review of literature (2000-2018) on implementation and sustainability of PROMs/ROMs in adult mental health settings (MHS).
DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Systemized review of literature (2000-2018) on numerous aspects of PROM/ROM implementation and sustainability in adult MHS worldwide.
RESULTS: Based on 103 articles, PROMs/ROMs were implemented mostly in outpatient settings for people with assorted mental health disorders receiving a diversity of services. Frequency of assessments and completion rates varied: one-third of projects had provider assessments; about half had both provider and self-assessments. Barriers to implementation: perceptions that PROM/ROM is intrusive to clinical practice, lack of infrastructure, fear that results may be used for cost containment and service eligibility instead of service quality improvement, difficulties with measures, ethical and confidentiality regulations and web security data management regulations.
CONCLUSION: Improving data input systems, sufficient training, regular feedback, measures to increase administrative and logistic support to improve implementation, acceptability, feasibility and sustainability, follow-up assessments and client attrition rate reduction efforts are only some measures needed to enhance PROM/ROM efficiency and efficacy.