Acquisition of a Simple Motor Skill

Task-Dependent Adaptation and Long-Term Changes in the Human Soleus Stretch Reflex

Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Uwe Gustav Kersting, Priscila de Brito Silva, Yukiko Makihara, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Thomas Sinkjaer, Aiko K Thompson

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Changing the H reflex through operant conditioning leads to CNS multisite plasticity and can affect previously learned skills. To further understand the mechanisms of this plasticity, we operantly conditioned the initial component (M1) of the soleus stretch reflex. Unlike the H reflex, the stretch reflex is affected by fusimotor control, comprises several bursts of activity resulting from temporally dispersed afferent inputs, and may activate spinal motoneurons via several different spinal and supraspinal pathways. Neurologically normal participants completed 6 baseline sessions and 24 operant conditioning sessions in which they were encouraged to increase (M1up) or decrease (M1down) M1 size. Five of eight M1up participants significantly increased M1; the final M1 size of those five participants was 143 ± 15% (mean ± SE) of the baseline value. All eight M1down participants significantly decreased M1; their final M1 size was 62 ± 6% of baseline. Similar to the previous H-reflex conditioning studies, conditioned reflex change consisted of within-session task-dependent adaptation and across-session long-term change. Task-dependent adaptation was evident in conditioning session 1 with M1up and by session 4 with M1down. Long-term change was evident by session 10 with M1up and by session 16 with M1down. Task-dependent adaptation was greater with M1up than with the previous H-reflex upconditioning. This may reflect adaptive changes in muscle spindle sensitivity, which affects the stretch reflex but not the H reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly than the H reflex, M1 conditioning may provide a valuable tool for exploring the functional impact of reflex conditioning and its potential therapeutic applications. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Since the activity of stretch reflex pathways contributes to locomotion, changing it through training may improve locomotor rehabilitation in people with CNS disorders. Here we show for the first time that people can change the size of the soleus spinal stretch reflex through operant conditioning. Conditioned stretch reflex change is the sum of task-dependent adaptation and long-term change, consistent with H-reflex conditioning yet different from it in the composition and amount of the two components.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Neurophysiology
Vol/bind122
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)435-446
Antal sider12
ISSN0022-3077
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 15 jul. 2019

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H-Reflex
Stretch Reflex
Motor Skills
Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Muscle Spindles
Motor Neurons
Locomotion
Reflex
Rehabilitation
Conditioning (Psychology)

Citer dette

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title = "Acquisition of a Simple Motor Skill: Task-Dependent Adaptation and Long-Term Changes in the Human Soleus Stretch Reflex",
abstract = "Changing the H reflex through operant conditioning leads to CNS multisite plasticity and can affect previously learned skills. To further understand the mechanisms of this plasticity, we operantly conditioned the initial component (M1) of the soleus stretch reflex. Unlike the H reflex, the stretch reflex is affected by fusimotor control, comprises several bursts of activity resulting from temporally dispersed afferent inputs, and may activate spinal motoneurons via several different spinal and supraspinal pathways. Neurologically normal participants completed 6 baseline sessions and 24 operant conditioning sessions in which they were encouraged to increase (M1up) or decrease (M1down) M1 size. Five of eight M1up participants significantly increased M1; the final M1 size of those five participants was 143 ± 15{\%} (mean ± SE) of the baseline value. All eight M1down participants significantly decreased M1; their final M1 size was 62 ± 6{\%} of baseline. Similar to the previous H-reflex conditioning studies, conditioned reflex change consisted of within-session task-dependent adaptation and across-session long-term change. Task-dependent adaptation was evident in conditioning session 1 with M1up and by session 4 with M1down. Long-term change was evident by session 10 with M1up and by session 16 with M1down. Task-dependent adaptation was greater with M1up than with the previous H-reflex upconditioning. This may reflect adaptive changes in muscle spindle sensitivity, which affects the stretch reflex but not the H reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly than the H reflex, M1 conditioning may provide a valuable tool for exploring the functional impact of reflex conditioning and its potential therapeutic applications. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Since the activity of stretch reflex pathways contributes to locomotion, changing it through training may improve locomotor rehabilitation in people with CNS disorders. Here we show for the first time that people can change the size of the soleus spinal stretch reflex through operant conditioning. Conditioned stretch reflex change is the sum of task-dependent adaptation and long-term change, consistent with H-reflex conditioning yet different from it in the composition and amount of the two components.",
author = "Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting and Kersting, {Uwe Gustav} and {de Brito Silva}, Priscila and Yukiko Makihara and Lars Arendt-Nielsen and Thomas Sinkjaer and Thompson, {Aiko K}",
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Acquisition of a Simple Motor Skill : Task-Dependent Adaptation and Long-Term Changes in the Human Soleus Stretch Reflex. / Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Kersting, Uwe Gustav; de Brito Silva, Priscila; Makihara, Yukiko; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Thompson, Aiko K.

I: Journal of Neurophysiology, Bind 122, Nr. 1, 15.07.2019, s. 435-446.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acquisition of a Simple Motor Skill

T2 - Task-Dependent Adaptation and Long-Term Changes in the Human Soleus Stretch Reflex

AU - Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

AU - Kersting, Uwe Gustav

AU - de Brito Silva, Priscila

AU - Makihara, Yukiko

AU - Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

AU - Sinkjaer, Thomas

AU - Thompson, Aiko K

PY - 2019/7/15

Y1 - 2019/7/15

N2 - Changing the H reflex through operant conditioning leads to CNS multisite plasticity and can affect previously learned skills. To further understand the mechanisms of this plasticity, we operantly conditioned the initial component (M1) of the soleus stretch reflex. Unlike the H reflex, the stretch reflex is affected by fusimotor control, comprises several bursts of activity resulting from temporally dispersed afferent inputs, and may activate spinal motoneurons via several different spinal and supraspinal pathways. Neurologically normal participants completed 6 baseline sessions and 24 operant conditioning sessions in which they were encouraged to increase (M1up) or decrease (M1down) M1 size. Five of eight M1up participants significantly increased M1; the final M1 size of those five participants was 143 ± 15% (mean ± SE) of the baseline value. All eight M1down participants significantly decreased M1; their final M1 size was 62 ± 6% of baseline. Similar to the previous H-reflex conditioning studies, conditioned reflex change consisted of within-session task-dependent adaptation and across-session long-term change. Task-dependent adaptation was evident in conditioning session 1 with M1up and by session 4 with M1down. Long-term change was evident by session 10 with M1up and by session 16 with M1down. Task-dependent adaptation was greater with M1up than with the previous H-reflex upconditioning. This may reflect adaptive changes in muscle spindle sensitivity, which affects the stretch reflex but not the H reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly than the H reflex, M1 conditioning may provide a valuable tool for exploring the functional impact of reflex conditioning and its potential therapeutic applications. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Since the activity of stretch reflex pathways contributes to locomotion, changing it through training may improve locomotor rehabilitation in people with CNS disorders. Here we show for the first time that people can change the size of the soleus spinal stretch reflex through operant conditioning. Conditioned stretch reflex change is the sum of task-dependent adaptation and long-term change, consistent with H-reflex conditioning yet different from it in the composition and amount of the two components.

AB - Changing the H reflex through operant conditioning leads to CNS multisite plasticity and can affect previously learned skills. To further understand the mechanisms of this plasticity, we operantly conditioned the initial component (M1) of the soleus stretch reflex. Unlike the H reflex, the stretch reflex is affected by fusimotor control, comprises several bursts of activity resulting from temporally dispersed afferent inputs, and may activate spinal motoneurons via several different spinal and supraspinal pathways. Neurologically normal participants completed 6 baseline sessions and 24 operant conditioning sessions in which they were encouraged to increase (M1up) or decrease (M1down) M1 size. Five of eight M1up participants significantly increased M1; the final M1 size of those five participants was 143 ± 15% (mean ± SE) of the baseline value. All eight M1down participants significantly decreased M1; their final M1 size was 62 ± 6% of baseline. Similar to the previous H-reflex conditioning studies, conditioned reflex change consisted of within-session task-dependent adaptation and across-session long-term change. Task-dependent adaptation was evident in conditioning session 1 with M1up and by session 4 with M1down. Long-term change was evident by session 10 with M1up and by session 16 with M1down. Task-dependent adaptation was greater with M1up than with the previous H-reflex upconditioning. This may reflect adaptive changes in muscle spindle sensitivity, which affects the stretch reflex but not the H reflex. Because the stretch reflex is related to motor function more directly than the H reflex, M1 conditioning may provide a valuable tool for exploring the functional impact of reflex conditioning and its potential therapeutic applications. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Since the activity of stretch reflex pathways contributes to locomotion, changing it through training may improve locomotor rehabilitation in people with CNS disorders. Here we show for the first time that people can change the size of the soleus spinal stretch reflex through operant conditioning. Conditioned stretch reflex change is the sum of task-dependent adaptation and long-term change, consistent with H-reflex conditioning yet different from it in the composition and amount of the two components.

U2 - 10.1152/jn.00211.2019

DO - 10.1152/jn.00211.2019

M3 - Journal article

VL - 122

SP - 435

EP - 446

JO - Journal of Neurophysiology

JF - Journal of Neurophysiology

SN - 0022-3077

IS - 1

ER -