Analysis and Classification of Frequency-Domain Terahertz Reflection Spectra Using Supervised and Unsupervised Dimensionality Reduction Methods

Pawel Piotr Cielecki, Mathias Hedegaard Kristensen, Esben Skovsen*

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Abstrakt

The unique properties of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy show a great potential for security and defense applications such as safe screening of persons and objects. However, a successful implementation of THz screening systems requires a development of reliable and efficient identification algorithms. Dimensionality reduction (DR) methods aim to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate data and are therefore commonly used as a preprocessing step for classification algorithms and as an analytical tool allowing data visualization. In this paper, we compare the use of unsupervised and supervised DR methods for analysis and classification of THz reflection spectra based on their most widespread linear representatives, namely principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis, respectively. To this end, both methods were applied to more than 5000 THz reflection spectra acquired from six active materials mixed at three different concentrations with polyethylene and measured at various humidity conditions. While considering scenarios with different levels of complexity, we found that the supervised approach provides better results because it enables efficient grouping despite intra-class variability. Furthermore, we showed that manipulating labels introduced into the supervised DR algorithm allows conditioning the data for a desired classification task such as security screening. Presented classification results show that simple machine learning algorithms are sufficient for highly accurate classification (>98.6%) of THz spectra, which will be suitable for many real-life applications of THz spectroscopy based on material identification.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves
Vol/bind42
Udgave nummer9-10
Sider (fra-til)1005-1026
Antal sider22
ISSN1866-6892
DOI
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2021

Emneord

  • Terahertz
  • Spectroscopy
  • Machine learning
  • THz-FDS

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