Antibiotic Use in the 12 Months Prior to Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis Increases the Risk for Pouchitis

Edward L. Barnes*, Anastasia Karachalia Sandri, Hans H. Herfarth, Tine Jess

*Kontaktforfatter

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pouchitis is the most common complication after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC); however, clinical and environmental risk factors for pouchitis remain poorly understood. We explored the relationship between specific clinical factors and the incidence of pouchitis.

METHODS: We established a population-based cohort of all adult persons in Denmark undergoing proctocolectomy with IPAA for UC from 1996-2020. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to assess the impact of antibiotic, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure, and appendectomy on diagnosis of acute pouchitis in the first 2 years after IPAA surgery.

RESULTS: Among 1616 eligible patients, 46% developed pouchitis in the first 2 years after IPAA. Antibiotic exposure in the 12 months before IPAA was associated with an increased risk of pouchitis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.64) after adjusting for anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha use and sex. Compared with persons without any antibiotic prescriptions in the 12 months before IPAA, the risk of pouchitis was increased in those with 1 or 2 courses of antibiotics in that period (aHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52) and 3 or more courses (aHR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.41-2.21). NSAID exposure in the 12 months before IPAA and appendectomy were not associated with risk of acute pouchitis (P = .201 and P = .865, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based cohort study, we demonstrated that antibiotic exposure in the 12 months before IPAA is associated with an increased risk of acute pouchitis. Future prospective studies may isolate specific microbial changes in at-risk patients to drive earlier interventions.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
ISSN1542-3565
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 29 mar. 2024

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © 2024 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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