Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling

A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark

Publikation: Bidrag til bog/antologi/rapport/konference proceedingKonferenceartikel i proceedingForskningpeer review

Resumé

The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all the particularities of electricity demand and on-site generation, e.g. the short-term spikes due use of high electricity consumption appliances such like electric kettle, and get a full picture of network performance, a high-resolution input data are needed. This paper compares the business-as-usual network modeling with modeling when 1-minute domestic electricity demand and generation profiles are used as inputs. The analysis is done with a case study of low-voltage network located in Northern Denmark.
The analysis includes two parts. The first part focuses on modeling the domestic demands and on-site generation in 1-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above-mentioned model, as they are closely related to the thermal properties of a building. Therefore, two type of single family houses equipped with heat pump are simulated in EnergyPlus with 1-minute time step. The PV generation profile is obtained from a model developed in Matlab environment. In the second part the generated profiles are inputted in a low-voltage network model created in DIgSILENT PowerFactory.
By means of employing 1 hour based demand and generation profiles in during dynamic studies, the representation of the local power system performance might sometimes not be as accurate as needed. In the test system employed in this case the simulation indicates that no stress is created in the grid. The loading of the transformer and power lines is 65% and 41%, respectively, which is below the limit of 80% of available capacity. The maximum voltage drop is 5.1% thus with the maximum allowed deviation of ± 10% and ± 6% according to standards and common practice, respectively. The same investigation, but with 1-minute input data, shows that the transformer is overloaded by 2% and the minimum voltage level is 0.922 % [p.u], which is below limits of common practice grid operation. When adding on-site PV on 50% of buildings, the loading of the transformer and power lines is reduced in the summer time to 58% and 51%, respectively. However, the power lines are stress with bi-directional power flow.
The results indicate that the business-as-usual approach to network modeling is not sufficient to capture the characteristic spikiness of the domestic load profiles and on-site generation. Hence the network overloading and high voltage deviations are not visible and the control strategies may be wrong.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TitelCLIMA 2016 : proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress
RedaktørerPer Heiselberg
Antal sider10
Vol/bind10
Udgivelses stedAalborg
ForlagDepartment of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University
Publikationsdato2016
Artikelnummer415
ISBN (Elektronisk)87-91606-35-7 (vol. 10), 87-91606-36-5 (set)
StatusUdgivet - 2016
BegivenhedCLIMA 2016 - 12th REHVA World Congress, 22-25 May 2016, Aalborg, Denmark - Aalborg, Danmark
Varighed: 22 maj 201625 maj 2016
Konferencens nummer: 12

Konference

KonferenceCLIMA 2016 - 12th REHVA World Congress, 22-25 May 2016, Aalborg, Denmark
Nummer12
LandDanmark
ByAalborg
Periode22/05/201625/05/2016

Fingerprint

Electricity
Electric potential
Electric appliances
Pumps
Domestic appliances
Network performance
Industry
Thermodynamic properties
Energy utilization
Hot Temperature

Emneord

  • Domestic load profiles
  • Low-voltage network
  • Energy modelling

Citer dette

Marszal, A. J., Mendaza, I. D. D. C., Heiselberg, P. K., & Bak-Jensen, B. (2016). Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling: A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark. I P. Heiselberg (red.), CLIMA 2016: proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress (Bind 10). [415] Aalborg: Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.
Marszal, Anna Joanna ; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio ; Heiselberg, Per Kvols ; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte. / Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling : A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark. CLIMA 2016: proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress. red. / Per Heiselberg. Bind 10 Aalborg : Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, 2016.
@inproceedings{31c0055ab9ab4374a2c8a4557c487082,
title = "Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling: A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark",
abstract = "The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all the particularities of electricity demand and on-site generation, e.g. the short-term spikes due use of high electricity consumption appliances such like electric kettle, and get a full picture of network performance, a high-resolution input data are needed. This paper compares the business-as-usual network modeling with modeling when 1-minute domestic electricity demand and generation profiles are used as inputs. The analysis is done with a case study of low-voltage network located in Northern Denmark.The analysis includes two parts. The first part focuses on modeling the domestic demands and on-site generation in 1-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above-mentioned model, as they are closely related to the thermal properties of a building. Therefore, two type of single family houses equipped with heat pump are simulated in EnergyPlus with 1-minute time step. The PV generation profile is obtained from a model developed in Matlab environment. In the second part the generated profiles are inputted in a low-voltage network model created in DIgSILENT PowerFactory.By means of employing 1 hour based demand and generation profiles in during dynamic studies, the representation of the local power system performance might sometimes not be as accurate as needed. In the test system employed in this case the simulation indicates that no stress is created in the grid. The loading of the transformer and power lines is 65{\%} and 41{\%}, respectively, which is below the limit of 80{\%} of available capacity. The maximum voltage drop is 5.1{\%} thus with the maximum allowed deviation of ± 10{\%} and ± 6{\%} according to standards and common practice, respectively. The same investigation, but with 1-minute input data, shows that the transformer is overloaded by 2{\%} and the minimum voltage level is 0.922 {\%} [p.u], which is below limits of common practice grid operation. When adding on-site PV on 50{\%} of buildings, the loading of the transformer and power lines is reduced in the summer time to 58{\%} and 51{\%}, respectively. However, the power lines are stress with bi-directional power flow.The results indicate that the business-as-usual approach to network modeling is not sufficient to capture the characteristic spikiness of the domestic load profiles and on-site generation. Hence the network overloading and high voltage deviations are not visible and the control strategies may be wrong.",
keywords = "Domestic load profiles, Low-voltage network, Energy modelling, Domestic load profiles, Low-voltage network, Energy modelling",
author = "Marszal, {Anna Joanna} and Mendaza, {Iker Diaz de Cerio} and Heiselberg, {Per Kvols} and Birgitte Bak-Jensen",
year = "2016",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
editor = "Per Heiselberg",
booktitle = "CLIMA 2016",
publisher = "Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University",
address = "Denmark",

}

Marszal, AJ, Mendaza, IDDC, Heiselberg, PK & Bak-Jensen, B 2016, Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling: A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark. i P Heiselberg (red.), CLIMA 2016: proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress. bind 10, 415, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Aalborg, Danmark, 22/05/2016.

Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling : A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark. / Marszal, Anna Joanna; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte.

CLIMA 2016: proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress. red. / Per Heiselberg. Bind 10 Aalborg : Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, 2016. 415.

Publikation: Bidrag til bog/antologi/rapport/konference proceedingKonferenceartikel i proceedingForskningpeer review

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T1 - Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling

T2 - A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark

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AU - Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio

AU - Heiselberg, Per Kvols

AU - Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

PY - 2016

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N2 - The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all the particularities of electricity demand and on-site generation, e.g. the short-term spikes due use of high electricity consumption appliances such like electric kettle, and get a full picture of network performance, a high-resolution input data are needed. This paper compares the business-as-usual network modeling with modeling when 1-minute domestic electricity demand and generation profiles are used as inputs. The analysis is done with a case study of low-voltage network located in Northern Denmark.The analysis includes two parts. The first part focuses on modeling the domestic demands and on-site generation in 1-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above-mentioned model, as they are closely related to the thermal properties of a building. Therefore, two type of single family houses equipped with heat pump are simulated in EnergyPlus with 1-minute time step. The PV generation profile is obtained from a model developed in Matlab environment. In the second part the generated profiles are inputted in a low-voltage network model created in DIgSILENT PowerFactory.By means of employing 1 hour based demand and generation profiles in during dynamic studies, the representation of the local power system performance might sometimes not be as accurate as needed. In the test system employed in this case the simulation indicates that no stress is created in the grid. The loading of the transformer and power lines is 65% and 41%, respectively, which is below the limit of 80% of available capacity. The maximum voltage drop is 5.1% thus with the maximum allowed deviation of ± 10% and ± 6% according to standards and common practice, respectively. The same investigation, but with 1-minute input data, shows that the transformer is overloaded by 2% and the minimum voltage level is 0.922 % [p.u], which is below limits of common practice grid operation. When adding on-site PV on 50% of buildings, the loading of the transformer and power lines is reduced in the summer time to 58% and 51%, respectively. However, the power lines are stress with bi-directional power flow.The results indicate that the business-as-usual approach to network modeling is not sufficient to capture the characteristic spikiness of the domestic load profiles and on-site generation. Hence the network overloading and high voltage deviations are not visible and the control strategies may be wrong.

AB - The ongoing development towards electrification of the energy consumption together with large deployment of renewable energy sources creates new challenges of variability and fluctuation of the electricity supply and increases complexity of the network operation. In order to capture all the particularities of electricity demand and on-site generation, e.g. the short-term spikes due use of high electricity consumption appliances such like electric kettle, and get a full picture of network performance, a high-resolution input data are needed. This paper compares the business-as-usual network modeling with modeling when 1-minute domestic electricity demand and generation profiles are used as inputs. The analysis is done with a case study of low-voltage network located in Northern Denmark.The analysis includes two parts. The first part focuses on modeling the domestic demands and on-site generation in 1-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above-mentioned model, as they are closely related to the thermal properties of a building. Therefore, two type of single family houses equipped with heat pump are simulated in EnergyPlus with 1-minute time step. The PV generation profile is obtained from a model developed in Matlab environment. In the second part the generated profiles are inputted in a low-voltage network model created in DIgSILENT PowerFactory.By means of employing 1 hour based demand and generation profiles in during dynamic studies, the representation of the local power system performance might sometimes not be as accurate as needed. In the test system employed in this case the simulation indicates that no stress is created in the grid. The loading of the transformer and power lines is 65% and 41%, respectively, which is below the limit of 80% of available capacity. The maximum voltage drop is 5.1% thus with the maximum allowed deviation of ± 10% and ± 6% according to standards and common practice, respectively. The same investigation, but with 1-minute input data, shows that the transformer is overloaded by 2% and the minimum voltage level is 0.922 % [p.u], which is below limits of common practice grid operation. When adding on-site PV on 50% of buildings, the loading of the transformer and power lines is reduced in the summer time to 58% and 51%, respectively. However, the power lines are stress with bi-directional power flow.The results indicate that the business-as-usual approach to network modeling is not sufficient to capture the characteristic spikiness of the domestic load profiles and on-site generation. Hence the network overloading and high voltage deviations are not visible and the control strategies may be wrong.

KW - Domestic load profiles

KW - Low-voltage network

KW - Energy modelling

KW - Domestic load profiles

KW - Low-voltage network

KW - Energy modelling

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BT - CLIMA 2016

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PB - Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University

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Marszal AJ, Mendaza IDDC, Heiselberg PK, Bak-Jensen B. Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling: A case study of low voltage grid in Denmark. I Heiselberg P, red., CLIMA 2016: proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress. Bind 10. Aalborg: Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. 2016. 415