Cannabinoids comprehend endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids, with actions both in the central and peripherical nervous systems. A considerable amount of publications have been made in recent years, although cannabis has been known for over a thousand years. Scientific Departments from the Brazilian Academy of Neurology described evidence for medical use in their areas. Literature is constantly changing, and possible new evidence can emerge in the next days or months. Prescription of these substances must be discussed with patients and their families, with knowledge about adverse events and their efficacy.