Comfort of Domestic Water in Residential Buildings: Flow,Temperature and Energy in Draw-Off Points: Field Study in Two Danish Detached Houses

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Abstrakt

There is very little knowledge on the occupant actual hot water comfort (temperature and flow), usage practice, and routines (temporal and spatial distribution of hot water usage in a household). This paper describes the results from the total and hot water measurements in two Danish detached houses. The results show that, at the draw-off points, the temperature of 55◦C is never asked by the occupants, not even in the kitchen sink. The domestic water temperature differentiates depending on the function of the draw-off point, with the shower and kitchen taps being most energy- and water-intense. They constitute around 90% of the hot water use in the house.Shower units on average demand for highest temperature (i.e., 35.5◦C to 40.4◦C). Hand washing operates, on average, at temperature between 20.5◦C to 26.5◦C. Average water temperature at the taps located in utility room varies between 23◦C to 26◦C. These in-depth insight in the total and hot water use in two new-built low energy houses, can a) help building professionals designing more efficient hot water installations; b) enhance the research work on energy flexibility buildings by providing knowledge on most energy-intensive draw-off points; and c) facilitate district heating professionals in improving the network performance.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer3314
TidsskriftEnergies
Vol/bind14
Udgave nummer11
Sider (fra-til)1-20
Antal sider20
ISSN1996-1073
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 4 jun. 2021

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