OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) to the localization of parathyroid adenomas compared with the dual-phase Tc-99m MIBI SPECT with low-dose CT (LD-CT).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent a preoperative dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT followed by surgical resection. The standard of care was dual-phase MIBI SPECT/CT, acquired with LD-CT in the early phase and CE-CT in the late phase (SPECT/CE-CT). The presence and localization of positive sites were extracted from study reports. To examine the role of CE-CT, patient cases were independently re-reviewed, with the early LD-CT fused with early and late SPECT (SPECT/LD-CT). The two SPECT/CT methods were compared for sensitivity, and the positive predictive value and histopathology were used as a reference.
RESULTS: In total, 138 patients were included. The investigation was positive for suspected adenomas in 124 patients using SPECT/CE-CT and in 122 patients using SPECT/LD-CT. The per-patient sensitivity was 87.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 80.7-92.6%] for SPECT/CE-CT and was not statistically significantly different from SPECT/LD-CT (85.3%; 95% CI: 78.2-90.8%) (P=0.39). The positive predictive value was 95.2% (95% CI: 95.4-99.9%) with SPECT/CE-CT versus 100% (95% CI: 96.8-100%) with SPECT/LD-CT. For small adenomas (≤500 mg), the sensitivity was low with SPECT/CE-CT (67%) as well as with SPECT/LD-CT (64%).
CONCLUSION: Late CE-CT, compared with late LD-CT, did not significantly improve the sensitivity of dual-phase Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid SPECT/CT in a population of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. These findings were consistent regardless of the size, location, or histology of the adenomas.