Objective: To examine the effect of a rehabilitation programme on quality of life and physical capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods: Patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation were randomized to either a 12-week rehabilitation programme with education and physical training (intervention group) or standard care (control group). At baseline, after 3, 6 and 12 months participants completed 5 different quality of life questionnaires (Quality of Life in patients with Atrial Fibrillation (AF-QoL-18), Atrial Fibrillation Effect on QualiTy of Life (AFEQT), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment (GAD-7) and EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D)), and physical exercise tests. Differences in mean] scores between groups were analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Fifty-eight patients (age range 43–78 years, 31% female) were included. In the intervention group the AF-QoL-18 score increased from baseline (48.4 (standard deviation (SD) 22.8)) to 6 months (68.0 (SD 15.2)) compared with the control group (baseline 51.6 (SD 22.3), 6 months 59.2 (SD 27.3)). After 12 months, there was no difference. Similar patterns were found for the other questionnaires. Maximum exercise capacity improved in the intervention group from baseline (176 W (SD 48)) to 6 months (190 W (SD 55)). There was no change in the control group. Conclusion: Education and physical training may have a short-term (but no long-term) beneficial effect on quality of life and physical exercise capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation.