Objectives: The prevalence of active, chronic, and former hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections was investigated in a cohort of immunocompromised patients. The association with transfusion transmitted HEV was evaluated, and the HEV seroprevalence was compared with that in healthy blood donors. Study design and methods: Serum samples from 4023 immunocompromised patients at Rigshospitalet, Denmark were retrospectively tested for HEV RNA and anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA-positive patients were followed up by HEV testing, clinical symptoms, and transfusion history. Factors associated with anti-HEV were explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Samples from 1226 blood donors were retrospectively tested for anti-HEV IgG. Results: HEV RNA was detected in six patients (0.15%) with no indications of chronic HEV infection. HEV RNA prevalence rates among recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) were 0.58% and 0.21%, respectively. Transfusion transmitted infections were refuted, and transfusion history was not associated with anti-HEV positivity. The difference in HEV seroprevalence between patients (22.0%) and blood donors (10.9%) decreased when adjusting for age and sex (odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.97–1.48). Conclusions: HEV viremia among allo-HSCT and SOT recipients suggests that clinicians should be aware of this diagnosis. The lack of association of blood transfusion with anti-HEV positivity supports food-borne transmission as the main transmission route of HEV common to both patients and blood donors.