Methods: We performed prospective whole-genome sequencing of germline DNA in Danish children diagnosed with WT from 2016 to 2021, and linked genotypes to deep phenotypes.
Results: Of 24 patients (58% female), 3 (13%, all female) harboured pathogenic germline variants in WT risk genes (FBXW7, WT1 and REST). Only one patient had a family history of WT (3 cases), segregating with the REST variant. Epigenetic testing revealed one (4%) additional patient (female) with uniparental disomy of chromosome 11 and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). We observed a tendency of higher methylation of the BWS-related imprinting centre 1 in patients with WT than in healthy controls. Three patients (13%, all female) with bilateral tumours and/or features of BWS had higher birth weights (4780 g vs 3575 g; p=0.002). We observed more patients with macrosomia (>4250 g, n=5, all female) than expected (OR 9.98 (95% CI 2.56 to 34.66)). Genes involved in early kidney development were enriched in our constrained gene analysis, including both known (WT1, FBXW7) and candidate (CTNND1, FRMD4A) WT predisposition genes. WT predisposing variants, BWS and/or macrosomia (n=8, all female) were more common in female patients than male patients (p=0.01).
Conclusion: We find that most females (57%) and 33% of all patients with WT had either a genetic or another indicator of WT predisposition. This emphasises the need for scrutiny when diagnosing patients with WT, as early detection of underlying predisposition may impact treatment, follow-up and genetic counselling.