Human resources in innovation systems: With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firms

Bidragets oversatte titel: Humane resourcer i innovationssystemer: Med fokus på introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft i små danske virksomheder

Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportPh.d.-afhandlingForskning

Resumé

Humane ressourcer i innovationssystemer - med fokus på introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft i små danske virksomheder

Denne afhandling har to hovedformål: (1) Et 'generelt' formål om at forøge vores viden omkring forholdet mellem innovation, teknologisk og organisatorisk fornyelse, og brugen af humane ressourcer, herunder den viden og de færdigheder der findes i de humane ressourcer, og (2) et mere 'specifikt' formål om at forøge vores viden omkring introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft, innovation og opgraderende forandringer (teknologiske og/eller organisatoriske) i små danske virksomheder. Kapitel 1 redegør for afhandlingens forskningsspørgsmål, og herunder forklares afhandlingens relevans bl.a. ved at henvise til nogle fundamentale overvejelser af økonomisk-videnskabelig art, men også ved at henvise til dansk empiri, danske analyser, og dansk politisk fokus på området.

     Kapitel 2 gennemgår relevant litteratur omkring 'innovationssystemer', 'human kapital', og 'den teknologiske og organisatoriske fornyelses færdigheds-/kompetence-skævhed'. I kapitlet forklares det, at denne afhandling primært refererer til 'innovationssystem'-tilgangen, hvad angår konceptuel og analytisk ramme, men det anerkendes at emne- og problemområdet er konceptuelt og analytisk tæt forbundet med de to andre litteraturer inden for den økonomiske videnskab.

     Kapitel 3 beskæftiger sig med afhandlingens 'generelle' formål, og der fastslås helt grundlæggende, at bidrag fra humane ressourcer - såsom indsigt, forståelse, kreativitet, og handleevne - er i sagens natur iboende vigtige i alle innovationsprocesser. I dette lys foreslås en tentativ konceptuel og analytisk ramme for, hvordan humane ressourcer og udviklingen af disse ressourcer kan studeres inden for en 'innovationssystem'-tilgang. I den foreslåede konceptuelle og analytiske ramme integreres også nogle fundamentale perspektiver fra økonomiske litteraturer omkring 'human kapital', 'den teknologiske og organisatoriske fornyelses færdigheds-/kompetence-skævhed', og 'entreprenørskab'.

     Kapitel 4 beskæftiger sig med afhandlingens mere 'specifikke' formål ved at målrette den i kapitel 3 foreslåede konceptuelle og analytiske ramme til et mere specifikt studie af relationen mellem introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft, innovation og opgraderende forandringer (teknologiske og/eller organisatoriske) i små danske virksomheder. I kapitlet begrundes en analytisk antagelse om, at højtuddannet arbejdskraft forventes at besidde en relativ specialiseret viden inden for givet studieområde, ligesom denne arbejdskraft også forventes at besidde relativt veludviklede akademiske færdigheder med hensyn til fx perception, fortolkning, analyse og systematisering. Små virksomheder uden højtuddannet arbejdskraft (dvs. før introduktionen af denne arbejdskraft) antages analytisk at være baseret på en praktisk vidensbase eller i hvert fald at være 'ikke-videnskabsbaserede'. På denne konceptuelle og analytiske baggrund fastslår kapitel 4 endvidere, at et studie af relationen mellem introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft, innovation og opgraderende forandringer i små danske virksomheder bør overveje to forskellige, muligvis komplementære, kausalitetssammenhænge: (1) introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft kan antages at have en indvirkning på innovation og opgraderende forandringer i små virksomheder, og/eller (2) innovation og opgraderende forandringer i små virksomheder kan antages at have en indvirkning på sandsynligheden for at introducere højtuddannet arbejdskraft. Kapitel 4 præsenterer endvidere relevante empiriske data, der vil blive anvendt til studiet af antagne kausalitetssammenhænge.

     Kapitel 5 beskæftiger sig med den første af de to kausalitetssammenhænge, der blev nævnt i kapitel 4, og i den henseende sandsynliggøres det at introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft vil have en positiv indvirkning på innovationsaktivitet og opgraderende tiltag i små virksomheder. Denne sandsynliggørelse baserer sig på tre, potentielt komplementære, ræsonnementer: (1) Introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft tilfører virksomheden ny og diversificerende viden, samt nye og potentielt komplementerende færdigheder, og sådanne bidrag kan anspore interaktive kreative processer, der igen kan føre til innovation og opgraderende forandringer, (2) introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft kan frigøre entre-/intraprenante kræfter i en given mindre virksomhed (fx ved at aflaste en entreprenant ejer fra administrative byrder), og sådan frigørelse kan igen føre til innovation og opgraderende forandringer, og (3) introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft kan evt. forbinde en given mindre virksomhed tættere til innovationssystemets formelle videnscentre, hvilket igen kan føre til innovation og opgraderende forandringer. Statistiske tests i kapitlet indikerer, at introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft med en teknisk- eller naturvidenskabelig kvalifikationsbaggrund signifikant forøger sandsynligheden for en teknologisk opgradering af små virksomheder, ligesom testene indikerer at introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft med 'andre' akademiske kvalifikationer, fx fra samfunds- eller humanvidenskaberne, signifikant forøger sandsynligheden for vigtige organisatoriske forandringer, teknologisk fornyelse, samt produkt/serviceinnovation i mindre virksomheder.

     Kapitel 6 beskæftiger sig med den anden af de to kausalitetssammenhænge, der blev nævnt i kapitel 4, og i den henseende argumenteres der for, at innovation og opgraderende forandringer, såsom vigtige organisatoriske eller teknologiske forandringer, skal integreres i små virksomheder. En sådan integrationsproces vil føre til nye virksomhedsrutiner og nye kontekstbetingelser, og processen såvel som den nye kontekst kan forventes at påvirke den kvalitative arbejdskraft-efterspørgsel i de små virksomheder. Baseret på dette grundlæggende syn sandsynliggør kapitel 6, at forskellige typer af innovation og opgraderende forandringer kan forventes at anspore introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft i små virksomheder. Statistiske tests i kapitlet indikerer at implementeringen af vigtige organisatoriske forandringer signifikant forøger sandsynligheden for at introducere højtuddannet arbejdskraft med teknisk, naturvidenskabelig eller 'anden' akademisk kvalifikationsbaggrund. Derudover indikeres, at introduktion af ny informations- og kommunikationsteknologi, som påvirker mindst 25 % af virksomhedens ansatte, signifikant forøger sandsynligheden for at introducere højtuddannet arbejdskraft med 'anden' akademisk kvalifikationsbaggrund, altså fx fra samfunds- eller humanvidenskaberne.  

     Kapitel 7 er afhandlingens afsluttende kapitel, der diskuterer 'generelle' og 'specifikke' konklusioner fra et akademisk-videnskabeligt perspektiv, og - idet det påpeges at afhandlingen ikke er skrevet som en politisk evaluerende rapport - så relaterer dette kapitel også nogle af afhandlingens betragtninger og resultater til overvejelser af økonomisk-politisk karakter. Derved afrunder kapitel 7 den afhandling, der i kapitel 1 begyndte med en argumentation omkring den teoretiske, empiriske såvel som økonomisk-politiske relevans af at studere relationen mellem introduktion af højtuddannet arbejdskraft, innovation og opgraderende forandringer i små danske virksomheder. Fremadrettet angiver kapitel 7 endvidere nogle forslag til fremtidig forskning inden for dette interessante og relevante område.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Udgivelses stedInstitut for Erhvervsstudier
Antal sider198
StatusUdgivet - 2007

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Human resources
Labor
Small firms
Innovation system
Innovation
Upgrading
Organizational change
Causality
Qualification
Systems of innovation
Human capital
Skill-biased technological change
Statistical tests
Upgrade
Technological change
Labour demand
Workforce
Innovation process
Service innovation
Integrated

Emneord

  • Humane ressourcer
  • Innovation
  • Teknologisk fornyelse
  • Organisatorisk forandring
  • Små virksomheder

Citer dette

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abstract = "Human resources in innovation systems: With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firmsThis thesis has two purposes: (1) a ‘general' purpose to enhance our knowledge on the relationship between innovation, technological and organisational change, and human resources, including knowledge and skills embodied in human resources, and (2) a more ‘specific' purpose to enhance our knowledge on introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms. Chapter 1 establishes the relevance of this research interest, and it also states the research questions which are studied in the thesis.     Chapter 2 reviews relevant literature on systems of innovation, human capital, and skill-biased technological and organisational change. It is stated in the chapter that this thesis primarily refers to a system of innovation approach as its conceptual and analytical framework, but it is also acknowledged that there are important links to human capital literature, as well as to the literature on skill-biased technological and organisational changes.     Chapter 3 addresses the ‘general' purpose of this thesis, and establishes that contributions stemming from human resources - such as insight, understanding, creativity, and action - are inherently important to all innovation processes. The chapter also suggests a tentative conceptual and analytical framework for studying human resources and their development within a system of innovation approach, a framework which integrates some fundamental perspectives from literatures on human capital, skill-biased technological and organisational change, and entrepreneurship.     Chapter 4 addresses the ‘specific' purpose of this thesis by specifically applying the conceptual and analytical framework developed in chapter 3 to a study of the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading change in small Danish firms. In the chapter highly educated labour is analytically assumed to embody specialised knowledge within a given field of study, as well as general academic skills - such as perception, interpretation, analysis, and systematisation skills - to rather advanced levels. Small firms without highly educated labour (i.e. before the introduction) are analytically assumed to be know-how-based or, equivalently, non-science-based. As for the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading change in small Danish firms, chapter 4 establishes that we should look for two different, but possibly complementary, causalities: (1) introduction of highly educated labour may spur innovation and upgrading changes in small firms, and/or (2) innovation and upgrading changes in small firms may spur introduction of highly educated labour. Chapter 4 also presents relevant empirical data for studying such assumed causalities.     Chapter 5 is concerned with the former of the two different causalities mentioned in chapter 4, and it argues that introduction of highly educated labour in small firms may increase the likelihood of innovation and upgrading changes due to three, potentially complementary, lines of reasoning: (1) The introduction brings in new, diversifying knowledge and skills that may spur creative interactive processes and lead to innovation and upgrading changes, (2) introduction of highly educated labour may release entre-/intrapreneurial forces in the firm that can spur innovation and upgrading changes, e.g. by relieving an enterprising owner of the firm, and (3) the introduction may link a given small firm better to formal knowledge centres in the innovation system and such a link may, again, spur innovation and upgrading changes. Statistical tests in the chapter indicate that introduction of highly educated labour with a technical or natural scientific qualification significantly increases the likelihood of technological upgrades in small firms, as well as they indicate that introduction of highly educated labour with ‘other' academic qualifications, e.g. from social and human sciences, significantly increases the likelihood of important organisational changes, technological upgrades, and product/service innovation in small firms.     Chapter 6 is concerned with the latter of the two different causalities mentioned in chapter 4, and it argues that innovation and upgrading changes, as e.g. important organisational or technological changes, need to be integrated in small firms through creation of new routines and contexts conditions and, as such, these activities are likely to imply a somewhat new qualitative labour demand in given small firms. Based on this view, chapter 6 gives reasons for why different types of innovation and upgrading changes may spur introduction of highly educated labour. Statistical tests in the chapter indicate that implementation of important organisational changes significantly increase the likelihood of introducing highly educated labour with technical, natural scientific, or ‘other' academic qualifications. In addition, introduction of new ICT that affects at least 25{\%} of the workforce significantly increases the likelihood of introducing highly educated labour with ‘another' academic qualification, e.g. from the social or human sciences.     Chapter 7 is the final chapter of the thesis that discusses ‘general' and ‘specific' conclusions from an academic point of view, and - stressing that the thesis is not written as a policy report - this chapter also relates some of the observations and findings in the thesis to policy perspectives. Thereby chapter 7 rounds off the thesis that started in chapter 1 by arguing why the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms is relevant to study from a theoretical, from an empirical, as well as from a policy point of view. Pointing forward, the final chapter also includes suggestions for future research.",
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Human resources in innovation systems : With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firms. / Nielsen, René Nesgaard.

Institut for Erhvervsstudier, 2007. 198 s.

Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportPh.d.-afhandlingForskning

TY - BOOK

T1 - Human resources in innovation systems

T2 - With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firms

AU - Nielsen, René Nesgaard

PY - 2007

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N2 - Human resources in innovation systems: With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firmsThis thesis has two purposes: (1) a ‘general' purpose to enhance our knowledge on the relationship between innovation, technological and organisational change, and human resources, including knowledge and skills embodied in human resources, and (2) a more ‘specific' purpose to enhance our knowledge on introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms. Chapter 1 establishes the relevance of this research interest, and it also states the research questions which are studied in the thesis.     Chapter 2 reviews relevant literature on systems of innovation, human capital, and skill-biased technological and organisational change. It is stated in the chapter that this thesis primarily refers to a system of innovation approach as its conceptual and analytical framework, but it is also acknowledged that there are important links to human capital literature, as well as to the literature on skill-biased technological and organisational changes.     Chapter 3 addresses the ‘general' purpose of this thesis, and establishes that contributions stemming from human resources - such as insight, understanding, creativity, and action - are inherently important to all innovation processes. The chapter also suggests a tentative conceptual and analytical framework for studying human resources and their development within a system of innovation approach, a framework which integrates some fundamental perspectives from literatures on human capital, skill-biased technological and organisational change, and entrepreneurship.     Chapter 4 addresses the ‘specific' purpose of this thesis by specifically applying the conceptual and analytical framework developed in chapter 3 to a study of the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading change in small Danish firms. In the chapter highly educated labour is analytically assumed to embody specialised knowledge within a given field of study, as well as general academic skills - such as perception, interpretation, analysis, and systematisation skills - to rather advanced levels. Small firms without highly educated labour (i.e. before the introduction) are analytically assumed to be know-how-based or, equivalently, non-science-based. As for the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading change in small Danish firms, chapter 4 establishes that we should look for two different, but possibly complementary, causalities: (1) introduction of highly educated labour may spur innovation and upgrading changes in small firms, and/or (2) innovation and upgrading changes in small firms may spur introduction of highly educated labour. Chapter 4 also presents relevant empirical data for studying such assumed causalities.     Chapter 5 is concerned with the former of the two different causalities mentioned in chapter 4, and it argues that introduction of highly educated labour in small firms may increase the likelihood of innovation and upgrading changes due to three, potentially complementary, lines of reasoning: (1) The introduction brings in new, diversifying knowledge and skills that may spur creative interactive processes and lead to innovation and upgrading changes, (2) introduction of highly educated labour may release entre-/intrapreneurial forces in the firm that can spur innovation and upgrading changes, e.g. by relieving an enterprising owner of the firm, and (3) the introduction may link a given small firm better to formal knowledge centres in the innovation system and such a link may, again, spur innovation and upgrading changes. Statistical tests in the chapter indicate that introduction of highly educated labour with a technical or natural scientific qualification significantly increases the likelihood of technological upgrades in small firms, as well as they indicate that introduction of highly educated labour with ‘other' academic qualifications, e.g. from social and human sciences, significantly increases the likelihood of important organisational changes, technological upgrades, and product/service innovation in small firms.     Chapter 6 is concerned with the latter of the two different causalities mentioned in chapter 4, and it argues that innovation and upgrading changes, as e.g. important organisational or technological changes, need to be integrated in small firms through creation of new routines and contexts conditions and, as such, these activities are likely to imply a somewhat new qualitative labour demand in given small firms. Based on this view, chapter 6 gives reasons for why different types of innovation and upgrading changes may spur introduction of highly educated labour. Statistical tests in the chapter indicate that implementation of important organisational changes significantly increase the likelihood of introducing highly educated labour with technical, natural scientific, or ‘other' academic qualifications. In addition, introduction of new ICT that affects at least 25% of the workforce significantly increases the likelihood of introducing highly educated labour with ‘another' academic qualification, e.g. from the social or human sciences.     Chapter 7 is the final chapter of the thesis that discusses ‘general' and ‘specific' conclusions from an academic point of view, and - stressing that the thesis is not written as a policy report - this chapter also relates some of the observations and findings in the thesis to policy perspectives. Thereby chapter 7 rounds off the thesis that started in chapter 1 by arguing why the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms is relevant to study from a theoretical, from an empirical, as well as from a policy point of view. Pointing forward, the final chapter also includes suggestions for future research.

AB - Human resources in innovation systems: With focus on introduction of highly educated labour in small Danish firmsThis thesis has two purposes: (1) a ‘general' purpose to enhance our knowledge on the relationship between innovation, technological and organisational change, and human resources, including knowledge and skills embodied in human resources, and (2) a more ‘specific' purpose to enhance our knowledge on introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms. Chapter 1 establishes the relevance of this research interest, and it also states the research questions which are studied in the thesis.     Chapter 2 reviews relevant literature on systems of innovation, human capital, and skill-biased technological and organisational change. It is stated in the chapter that this thesis primarily refers to a system of innovation approach as its conceptual and analytical framework, but it is also acknowledged that there are important links to human capital literature, as well as to the literature on skill-biased technological and organisational changes.     Chapter 3 addresses the ‘general' purpose of this thesis, and establishes that contributions stemming from human resources - such as insight, understanding, creativity, and action - are inherently important to all innovation processes. The chapter also suggests a tentative conceptual and analytical framework for studying human resources and their development within a system of innovation approach, a framework which integrates some fundamental perspectives from literatures on human capital, skill-biased technological and organisational change, and entrepreneurship.     Chapter 4 addresses the ‘specific' purpose of this thesis by specifically applying the conceptual and analytical framework developed in chapter 3 to a study of the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading change in small Danish firms. In the chapter highly educated labour is analytically assumed to embody specialised knowledge within a given field of study, as well as general academic skills - such as perception, interpretation, analysis, and systematisation skills - to rather advanced levels. Small firms without highly educated labour (i.e. before the introduction) are analytically assumed to be know-how-based or, equivalently, non-science-based. As for the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading change in small Danish firms, chapter 4 establishes that we should look for two different, but possibly complementary, causalities: (1) introduction of highly educated labour may spur innovation and upgrading changes in small firms, and/or (2) innovation and upgrading changes in small firms may spur introduction of highly educated labour. Chapter 4 also presents relevant empirical data for studying such assumed causalities.     Chapter 5 is concerned with the former of the two different causalities mentioned in chapter 4, and it argues that introduction of highly educated labour in small firms may increase the likelihood of innovation and upgrading changes due to three, potentially complementary, lines of reasoning: (1) The introduction brings in new, diversifying knowledge and skills that may spur creative interactive processes and lead to innovation and upgrading changes, (2) introduction of highly educated labour may release entre-/intrapreneurial forces in the firm that can spur innovation and upgrading changes, e.g. by relieving an enterprising owner of the firm, and (3) the introduction may link a given small firm better to formal knowledge centres in the innovation system and such a link may, again, spur innovation and upgrading changes. Statistical tests in the chapter indicate that introduction of highly educated labour with a technical or natural scientific qualification significantly increases the likelihood of technological upgrades in small firms, as well as they indicate that introduction of highly educated labour with ‘other' academic qualifications, e.g. from social and human sciences, significantly increases the likelihood of important organisational changes, technological upgrades, and product/service innovation in small firms.     Chapter 6 is concerned with the latter of the two different causalities mentioned in chapter 4, and it argues that innovation and upgrading changes, as e.g. important organisational or technological changes, need to be integrated in small firms through creation of new routines and contexts conditions and, as such, these activities are likely to imply a somewhat new qualitative labour demand in given small firms. Based on this view, chapter 6 gives reasons for why different types of innovation and upgrading changes may spur introduction of highly educated labour. Statistical tests in the chapter indicate that implementation of important organisational changes significantly increase the likelihood of introducing highly educated labour with technical, natural scientific, or ‘other' academic qualifications. In addition, introduction of new ICT that affects at least 25% of the workforce significantly increases the likelihood of introducing highly educated labour with ‘another' academic qualification, e.g. from the social or human sciences.     Chapter 7 is the final chapter of the thesis that discusses ‘general' and ‘specific' conclusions from an academic point of view, and - stressing that the thesis is not written as a policy report - this chapter also relates some of the observations and findings in the thesis to policy perspectives. Thereby chapter 7 rounds off the thesis that started in chapter 1 by arguing why the relationship between introduction of highly educated labour, innovation, and upgrading changes in small Danish firms is relevant to study from a theoretical, from an empirical, as well as from a policy point of view. Pointing forward, the final chapter also includes suggestions for future research.

KW - Humane ressourcer

KW - Innovation

KW - Teknologisk fornyelse

KW - Organisatorisk forandring

KW - Små virksomheder

KW - Human resources

KW - Innovation

KW - Technological change

KW - Organisational change

KW - Small firms

M3 - Ph.D. thesis

BT - Human resources in innovation systems

CY - Institut for Erhvervsstudier

ER -