Increased extracellular vesicles (EVs) related to T cell-mediated inflammation and vascular function in familial hypercholesterolemia

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Abstract

Background and aims
OxLDL modulates innate and adaptive immunity, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from both non-immune and immune cells are proposed key players in atherosclerosis development. In the present study, we aimed to investigate EVs expressing markers related to adaptive immunity-driven inflammation and endothelial activation/dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic patients.

Methods
EVs were phenotyped in thirty patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and twenty-three healthy controls using the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array with antibodies targeting proteins expressed on B and T cells, and endothelial cells.

Results
FH patients had a higher atherosclerotic burden, as determined by the mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (0.64 ± 0.12 mm vs. 0.58 ± 0.07 mm; p = 0.033), higher oxLDL levels (p < 0.0001), and showed increased levels of EV-specific markers: CD9 (p = 0.017), CD63 (p = 0.045), CD81 (p = 0.003), Annexin V (p = 0.018), and EV markers related to adaptive/lymphocyte immunity: CD28 (p = 0.034), CD4 (p = 0.049), CD152 (p = 0.029), LFA-1 (p = 0.024), and endothelial function: CD62E (p = 0.032), CD144 (p = 0.018), tPA (p = 0.017), CD31 (p = 0.024). Linear regression revealed a positive relationship between carotid IMT and several of the increased markers observed within the FH group, including CD9 (β = 0.33; p = 0.022), CD63 (β = 0.35; p 225 = 0.026), CD28 (β = 0.37; p = 0.026), CD4 (β = 0.40; p = 0.025), CD152 (β = 0.41; p = 0.017), LFA-1 (β = 0.42; p = 0.014) and CD62E (β = 0.38; p = 0.024).

Conclusion
EVs associated with adaptive immunity and endothelial dysfunction are elevated in FH patients, and several markers related to a higher atherosclerotic burden.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAtherosclerosis Plus
Vol/bind53
Sider (fra-til)16-25
Antal sider10
ISSN2667-0909
DOI
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2023

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© 2023 The Authors.

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