Influenza Vaccine Type-Dependent Antibody Response in Patients with Autoimmune Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases

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BACKGROUND: The study aimed to explore influenza antibody response in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatoid diseases (AIIRDs) stratified by the different vaccine types applied in Denmark during the 2018-2019 influenza season.

METHODS: Included patients were diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or spondyloarthritis receiving biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) with or without conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Influenza vaccination status in the 2018-2019 season and vaccine type received were reviewed in the Denmark. Blood samples were drawn ≥ 14 days post vaccination, and antibody titers were determined by the hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) assay for the serotypes A/Michigan/H1N1, A/Singapore/H3N2, and B/Colorado included in the influenza vaccines in the 2018-2019 season. An overall serotype HAI geometric mean titer (GMT) was calculated from the 3 serotype-specific HAI titers. An overall serotype HAI GMT ≥ 40 was considered protective.

RESULTS: Of the 205 included patients, 105 (51%) had received influenza vaccination. One-quarter of vaccinated patients achieved post-vaccination overall serotype HAI GMT ≥40. For patients vaccinated with Influvac, a significantly higher proportion had HAI titers ≥ 40 for 2 serotypes, namely, A/Michigan/H1N1 and A/Singapore/H3N2, than patients vaccinated with Vaxigrip or VaxigripTetra. The same applied to all serotypes HAI GMT, where significantly more patients who received Influvac achieved postvaccination HAI GMT≥40 versus patients who received Vaxigrip (p=0.02) or VaxigripTetra (p=0.002). The latter outcome was explored in a multivariable logistic regression analysis and remained significant when including the following variables: age, sex, treatment with methotrexate and/or prednisolone, type of influenza vaccine, time interval from vaccination to antibody measurement, and previous vaccination status.

CONCLUSION: Influenza antibody levels following vaccination with Influvac in bDMARD-treated patients with AIIRDs were superior to Vaxigrip and VaxigripTetra. Treatment with methotrexate (MTX) did not reduce the antibody response.

TidsskriftEuropean journal of rheumatology
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)122-129
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 18 okt. 2023


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