This chapter traces the development of scholarly interest in innovation and innovation policy in the Western world in general and in Denmark in particular, ranging from the early post-war period to the early years of the new millennium. In the early post-war world, innovation was commonly identified with the application of science, leading to science and science policy receiving more attention by policy makers. However, as shown in the second section of the chapter, it gradually became clear that there was more to innovation than science alone, and that the conditions under which firms were able to upgrade technologically and innovate also needed to be understood. As a result, a rich body of knowledge on innovation in firms, including its relationship with other societal factors, emerged and influenced the policy thinking. Increased interest in innovation policy, particularly in Europe, was also related to the spread of system-approaches to the study of innovation and its effects (e.g., ‘national systems of innovation’), which became popular in several European countries around the turn of the century. The third section of this chapter focuses on Denmark, exploring how understandings of innovation and innovation policy instruments in Denmark gradually evolved under the influence of similar developments elsewhere, and as a response to policy needs and lessons from earlier (industrial) policies.
|Bidragets oversatte titel||Innovationspolitikkens fremkomst og udvikling - danske erfaringer|