Despite a significant number of studies on improving operational efficiency of container terminals, existing literature has paid a little attention to improve energy efficiency, i.e. reducing energy consumption and negative externalities in container terminals. Most of researchers consider the energy-saving goal when allocating berths and quay cranes to vessels, assuming that internal trucks are often enough. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that limited availability of internal trucks becomes an issue that highly affects the operational and energy efficiencies in container terminals. This paper presents an energy-efficient and integrated planning model for the berth allocation, the quay crane assignment and the internal truck assignment problems. The proposed model contributes to the recent literature by considering the energy-saving goals in the integrated planning of these problems as well as including important realistic factors like the limited availability of internal trucks and handling time estimation, thus producing a reliable handling plan that achieves energy and cost savings without additional truck investment. A Lagrangian relaxation-based heuristic is developed to solve realistic problems. Furthermore, the benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated by comparison against an existing approach. On average, our approach could improve the solutions of the integrated problem under different number of internal trucks by 6% compared to the solutions obtained by the existing approach.
|Status||Accepteret/In press - 14 apr. 2020|