Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards

Lone Mandrup Stidsen

Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportPh.d.-afhandlingForskning

1 Downloads (Pure)

Resumé

I Danmark arbejdes der lige nu med at skabe fremtidens hospitaler. De nye hospitaler har et øget fokus på bru¬gere af hospitalet, og de fysiske omgivelsers sansemæssige betydning undersøges og forbedres, så de bedre under¬støtter brugernes behov. Bøger som ‘Sansernes Hospital‘ og ‘Helende Arkitektu’ er danske bud på hvordan for¬skning kan tages med ind i designprocessen og emner som ‘Evidence Based Design’ efterspørges for at sikre et for-skningsbaseret og dermed fremtidssikre hospitalsbyggeri. Ph.d.-projektet udbygger den eksisterende viden omkring lysets sansemæssige betydning for oplevelsen af rum og arbejder med en model, der beskriver vigtige faktorer i evalueringen af belysning. Derudover udvikles der gennem eksplorative studier, samt en teoretisk og visuelt koncept for belysning af sengestuer, der herefter installeres som eksperimentielt ”real world study” på en sengestue, hvor der også evalueres af patienterne selv.

Forståelsen af begrebet ‘atmosfære’, sanselig erfaring og oplevelse af omgivelserne eksisterer og behandles som en slags tavs viden mellem arkitekter og designere. De skaber atmosfære og snakker om sansemæssige faktorer, som var det en selvfølgelighed og at alle andre har samme forståelse. Denne tavse viden om emnet og forståelsen af den generelle designproces bliver ofte misforstået som en hokus pokus metode til udvikling af æstetisk formgivning.

Projektet tager udgangspunkt i Dansk Standards Retningslinjer for kunstig belysning i sygehuse (DS703) der er et supplement til Kunstig belysning i arbejdslokaler (DS700). I DS703 står der i stk. 2 om Almene krav til belysningen s. 2.: ”For den øvrige belysning må lysfarven vælges ud fra patienternes behov for en tiltalende “hjemlig” belysning, hvilket i de fleste tilfælde vil betyde en farvetemperatur, der ikke er højere end 3000 K og en rimelig god farvegengivelse med Ra>80. (Dansk Standardiserings råd nov 1983)

Generelt er de målbare kvalitetsparametre som lux, Ra-værdi og kelvingrader beskrevet tilfredsstillende, så det som designer er til at overholde. Men hvad betyder ”hjemlig” og ”tiltalende” i denne sammenhæng? Er det nok at henvise til lysfarve og farvegengivelse, når lyset skal være tiltalende og give patienten den følelse af hjemlighed ?

Dette projekt tilstræber derfor at synliggøre designprocessen for belysningen til en hospitalssengestue, samt sætte ord på nogle af de parametre, der har betydning når en lysatmosfære bedømmes, eller som DS 703 skriver som tiltalende ‘hjemlig’ belysning. Jeg vil påstå, at de færreste sengestuers belysning kan betegnes som ‘tiltalende’ og ‘hjemlig’. Lysatmosfæren er måske nærmere institutionaliseret med tydelig reference til belysningen i det offentlige miljø. Derfor arbejder projektet ud fra en hypotese om, at Ra-værdi og Kelvingrader ikke er nok til at definere en ‘tiltalende hjemlig’ belysning. Parametre som sociokulturelle forståelse, den geografiske placering, lysets placering i rummet (horisontalt såvel som vertikalt) også har en betydning for hvordan belysningen opleves. Derfor stiller vi spørgsmål som: Hvad er hjemlig belysning? Hvilke præferencer har vi til belysning? Og kan man tale om en specifik måde hvorpå vi belyser vores hjemlige omgivelser?

Modellen ‘Lysatmosfære’ (fig 0.7 på forrige side) beskriver 4 kerneområder, der har betydning for kvalificeringen af en lys atmosfære, nemlig: ‘Lyset’, ‘Rummet’, ‘Brugerne’og ‘Tiden’ Der skelnes mellem dagslys og kunstigt lys, lysets informationer og effekt som funktion, æstetik eller symbolik. Rumdimensioner, rummets placering materialer, overflader og genstande i rummet har også betydning for oplevelsen. Tiden og tidspunktet for ophold i rummet er også et parameter, man skal forholde sig til. Brugerne kan deles op i kategorier som ’Patienter’, ‘Personale’ og ‘Pårørende’. De har forskellige præferencer og behov. Rummet fungerer som arbejdsrum for personale, og patienter og pårørende er det et soveværelse, en dagligstue, en spisestue og nogle gange endda et toilet. Lyset må derfor kunne understøtte funktioner som læsning, samtaler med personalet eller pårørende, se TV eller måske at man går til hvile før den anden patient på sengestuen.

Modellen ‘Lysatmosfære’ er omdrejningspunktet i projektet hvorigennem den udvikles gennem en iterativ proces. Først fungerende som en afgrænsning og brainstorm på feltet og senere som et designværktøj til at skabe lysatmosfære. Herefter udføres eksplorative studier af præferencer for lys, lystrends gennem tiden, et studie af hvordan sengestuen kan optimeres ved zoneinddeling samt beskrivelse af personlig oplevelse af en indlæggelse. Derefter omsættes den opnåede viden til et eksperimentel ‘Real World’ studie hvor lyskonceptet installeres på en sengestue og evalueres med en Semantisk Miljøbeskrivelse.

Gennem projektet udføres 4 iterationsrunder. 1. runde beskriver ”State of the art” og præsenterer teoretiske og visuelle aspekter af ‘Atmosfære’. Studiets funderes teoretisk ved brug af Gernot Böhmes’ atmosfærekoncept samt studier af arkitekters måde at designe atmosfære. Runde 2 udforsker brugernes præferencer og tendenser for lysatmosfære i fire eksplorative studier; først et studie præsentere observation af lysatmosfære på sengestuen. Derefter en undersøgelse af lyspræferencer i hjemmet samt lystrends gennem tiden og til sidst en zoneinddeling af sengestuen i et forsøg på at optimere lyset til brugerne. 3. runde er et experimentielt design studie, hvor en mock-up model af lysdesignet bliver installeret på en sengestue. I 4. runde undersøger måder til at evaluere en lysoplevelse. Sengestuens belysning bliver evalueret af patienter og sammenlignet med oplevelsen af belysningen på en referencestue. Til at evaluere patienternes oplevelse af sengestuen bruges en valideret metode ”Semantisk Miljø Beskrivning” udviklet af Rikard Küller, der siden 1970’erne oversat til flere sprog.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Udgivelses stedAalborg
ForlagDepartment of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University
Antal sider452
StatusUdgivet - 2012
NavnDCE Thesis
Nummer40
ISSN1901-7294

Fingeraftryk

Lighting
Color
Chemical analysis
Semantics
Display devices
Testing

Emneord

  • Lighting Design Parameters
  • Hospital Wards
  • Light Atmosphere

Citer dette

Stidsen, L. M. (2012). Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards. Aalborg: Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University. DCE Thesis, Nr. 40
Stidsen, Lone Mandrup. / Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards. Aalborg : Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, 2012. 452 s. (DCE Thesis; Nr. 40).
@phdthesis{e3b9ecd476ed48d384285fb79e24d9c6,
title = "Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards",
abstract = "At the moment, the future of hospital design is a subject of interest and thereby also a subject of discussion. It is a fact that new hospitals have an increased focus on user perspectives and an interest for improving the physical environment in such a way it supports the user needs and preferences and thereby the experience of an admission to the hospital. Recent literature such as ‘Hospitals of the senses’ and ‘Healing Architecture’ presents research and design solutions focused on senses and experience of the design. The Danish Regions ask for ‘Evidence Based Design’ to future prove the hospitals by research base the design of the buildings.The present PhD project expands the existing knowledge of lighting research by focusing on the experienced light atmosphere. The project uses multi strategies of methodology based on a flexible design to elaborate on the sociocultural aspect of light and the sensory impact of light. To frame the work, the “Model of Light Atmosphere” is created and improved throughout the study, first as an abstract model and then it is exposed for detailed study. The detailed study first of all creates a theoretical and visual context. Then explorative studies seek to investigate unknown or tacit knowledge on how light is used in a Danish context, preferences for light in different situations and investigating the hospital ward as frame for a lighting concept. The concept is installed in a hospital ward at Odense University Hospital as a “real world” study and evaluated by the patients in the ward.The project is based on the Danish Regulation for light in hospitals (DS703), which is a supplement to the regulation of artificial lighting in workplaces (DS700). The kick-off to the project was reading the DS703, second paragraph, chapter 2 about general requirements for lighting. “For the rest of the lighting, the light color should be chosen on the basis of the patients’ needs for a pleasant and “home like” feeling. This will in most cases mean a color temperature that is higher than 3000 K and a reasonably good color rendering of Ra> 80 (DS703).In general, measurable parameters such as the amount of Lux, the composition of CRI and degree of Kelvin is described precisely in a way so the designer can handle the requirements. But what does it mean to create a ‘homelike’ and ‘pleasant or appealing’ light in this context? Does the composition of CRI and degree of Kelvin tell it all? Is it enough information to provide an illumination, which the patient can experience as homely and pleasant?This project seeks to highlight the design process of lighting a hospital ward and articulate visual as well as written what a homely and pleasant light atmosphere could be in a Danish context. Therefore, the study investigates the socio-cultural understanding and the geographical impact of the understanding of light atmosphere. ‘Model of Light Atmosphere’ (fig 0.6) describes four key aspects of light atmosphere and displays what is important when a light atmosphere is qualified. The four key aspects are: ‘Light’, ‘Space’, ‘Users’ and ‘Time’.The ‘Light’ aspect describes, as shown in (Fig 0.6), the character of the light, light information and light effect i.e. function, aesthetics or symbolism. The ‘Space’ aspect looks into the dimension of the space, geographical orientation, interior design, composition of the space, materials, surfaces and objects. The parameter ‘Time’ elaborates on the time one is present in the space, the season and time of day. The ‘Users’ aspect is split up into categories such as characteristics exploring the user group’s preferences and needs. The user group has quite diverse needs and preferences, while the staff needs task lighting and the patient a space experienced as homely and pleasant.Categories such as ‘pleasure’ and ‘activities’ are also a part of the user aspect. The space is divided into subcategories as ‘location of the space’ and ‘geographical orientation’. The interior design, surface and spatial composition of the space are also parameters of importance. The ‘Model of Light Atmosphere’ is the focal point of the project through iterative process and also developed through the study. First the model frames the study and later serves as a design tool for creating light atmosphere in hospital wards.The project is performed through four cycles of iterations. The first cycle elaborates on atmosphere. Here the study find its theoretical foundation based on Gernot B{\"o}hmes’ concept of atmosphere. It also finds its visual understand¬ing by studying the architects’ way to design atmosphere. The second cycle explores the users’ preferences and trends of light atmosphere in four exploratory studies. First presented is an observation of ward atmosphere. Hereafter a study of light preferences in Danish homes. Then, the trends of light atmosphere in Denmark are lastly an investigation on light zones at the hospital ward defined in order to optimize the illumination.The third cycle of iteration is an experimental study testing a lighting concept developed and grounded in the knowledge gained through the first and second cycle. The fourth cycle evaluates the effect of the light atmosphere at the ward. Here the patients are admitted to two similar wards not including the artificial illumination. The evalu¬ation uses Semantic Environmental Description developed by environmental psychiatrist Rikard K{\"u}ller, in order to evaluate the light atmosphere.",
keywords = "Lighting Design Parameters, Hospital Wards, Light Atmosphere, Lighting Design Parameters, Hospital Wards, Light Atmosphere",
author = "Stidsen, {Lone Mandrup}",
year = "2012",
language = "English",
publisher = "Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University",
address = "Denmark",

}

Stidsen, LM 2012, Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards. DCE Thesis, nr. 40, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg.

Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards. / Stidsen, Lone Mandrup.

Aalborg : Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, 2012. 452 s.

Publikation: Bog/antologi/afhandling/rapportPh.d.-afhandlingForskning

TY - BOOK

T1 - Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards

AU - Stidsen, Lone Mandrup

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - At the moment, the future of hospital design is a subject of interest and thereby also a subject of discussion. It is a fact that new hospitals have an increased focus on user perspectives and an interest for improving the physical environment in such a way it supports the user needs and preferences and thereby the experience of an admission to the hospital. Recent literature such as ‘Hospitals of the senses’ and ‘Healing Architecture’ presents research and design solutions focused on senses and experience of the design. The Danish Regions ask for ‘Evidence Based Design’ to future prove the hospitals by research base the design of the buildings.The present PhD project expands the existing knowledge of lighting research by focusing on the experienced light atmosphere. The project uses multi strategies of methodology based on a flexible design to elaborate on the sociocultural aspect of light and the sensory impact of light. To frame the work, the “Model of Light Atmosphere” is created and improved throughout the study, first as an abstract model and then it is exposed for detailed study. The detailed study first of all creates a theoretical and visual context. Then explorative studies seek to investigate unknown or tacit knowledge on how light is used in a Danish context, preferences for light in different situations and investigating the hospital ward as frame for a lighting concept. The concept is installed in a hospital ward at Odense University Hospital as a “real world” study and evaluated by the patients in the ward.The project is based on the Danish Regulation for light in hospitals (DS703), which is a supplement to the regulation of artificial lighting in workplaces (DS700). The kick-off to the project was reading the DS703, second paragraph, chapter 2 about general requirements for lighting. “For the rest of the lighting, the light color should be chosen on the basis of the patients’ needs for a pleasant and “home like” feeling. This will in most cases mean a color temperature that is higher than 3000 K and a reasonably good color rendering of Ra> 80 (DS703).In general, measurable parameters such as the amount of Lux, the composition of CRI and degree of Kelvin is described precisely in a way so the designer can handle the requirements. But what does it mean to create a ‘homelike’ and ‘pleasant or appealing’ light in this context? Does the composition of CRI and degree of Kelvin tell it all? Is it enough information to provide an illumination, which the patient can experience as homely and pleasant?This project seeks to highlight the design process of lighting a hospital ward and articulate visual as well as written what a homely and pleasant light atmosphere could be in a Danish context. Therefore, the study investigates the socio-cultural understanding and the geographical impact of the understanding of light atmosphere. ‘Model of Light Atmosphere’ (fig 0.6) describes four key aspects of light atmosphere and displays what is important when a light atmosphere is qualified. The four key aspects are: ‘Light’, ‘Space’, ‘Users’ and ‘Time’.The ‘Light’ aspect describes, as shown in (Fig 0.6), the character of the light, light information and light effect i.e. function, aesthetics or symbolism. The ‘Space’ aspect looks into the dimension of the space, geographical orientation, interior design, composition of the space, materials, surfaces and objects. The parameter ‘Time’ elaborates on the time one is present in the space, the season and time of day. The ‘Users’ aspect is split up into categories such as characteristics exploring the user group’s preferences and needs. The user group has quite diverse needs and preferences, while the staff needs task lighting and the patient a space experienced as homely and pleasant.Categories such as ‘pleasure’ and ‘activities’ are also a part of the user aspect. The space is divided into subcategories as ‘location of the space’ and ‘geographical orientation’. The interior design, surface and spatial composition of the space are also parameters of importance. The ‘Model of Light Atmosphere’ is the focal point of the project through iterative process and also developed through the study. First the model frames the study and later serves as a design tool for creating light atmosphere in hospital wards.The project is performed through four cycles of iterations. The first cycle elaborates on atmosphere. Here the study find its theoretical foundation based on Gernot Böhmes’ concept of atmosphere. It also finds its visual understand¬ing by studying the architects’ way to design atmosphere. The second cycle explores the users’ preferences and trends of light atmosphere in four exploratory studies. First presented is an observation of ward atmosphere. Hereafter a study of light preferences in Danish homes. Then, the trends of light atmosphere in Denmark are lastly an investigation on light zones at the hospital ward defined in order to optimize the illumination.The third cycle of iteration is an experimental study testing a lighting concept developed and grounded in the knowledge gained through the first and second cycle. The fourth cycle evaluates the effect of the light atmosphere at the ward. Here the patients are admitted to two similar wards not including the artificial illumination. The evalu¬ation uses Semantic Environmental Description developed by environmental psychiatrist Rikard Küller, in order to evaluate the light atmosphere.

AB - At the moment, the future of hospital design is a subject of interest and thereby also a subject of discussion. It is a fact that new hospitals have an increased focus on user perspectives and an interest for improving the physical environment in such a way it supports the user needs and preferences and thereby the experience of an admission to the hospital. Recent literature such as ‘Hospitals of the senses’ and ‘Healing Architecture’ presents research and design solutions focused on senses and experience of the design. The Danish Regions ask for ‘Evidence Based Design’ to future prove the hospitals by research base the design of the buildings.The present PhD project expands the existing knowledge of lighting research by focusing on the experienced light atmosphere. The project uses multi strategies of methodology based on a flexible design to elaborate on the sociocultural aspect of light and the sensory impact of light. To frame the work, the “Model of Light Atmosphere” is created and improved throughout the study, first as an abstract model and then it is exposed for detailed study. The detailed study first of all creates a theoretical and visual context. Then explorative studies seek to investigate unknown or tacit knowledge on how light is used in a Danish context, preferences for light in different situations and investigating the hospital ward as frame for a lighting concept. The concept is installed in a hospital ward at Odense University Hospital as a “real world” study and evaluated by the patients in the ward.The project is based on the Danish Regulation for light in hospitals (DS703), which is a supplement to the regulation of artificial lighting in workplaces (DS700). The kick-off to the project was reading the DS703, second paragraph, chapter 2 about general requirements for lighting. “For the rest of the lighting, the light color should be chosen on the basis of the patients’ needs for a pleasant and “home like” feeling. This will in most cases mean a color temperature that is higher than 3000 K and a reasonably good color rendering of Ra> 80 (DS703).In general, measurable parameters such as the amount of Lux, the composition of CRI and degree of Kelvin is described precisely in a way so the designer can handle the requirements. But what does it mean to create a ‘homelike’ and ‘pleasant or appealing’ light in this context? Does the composition of CRI and degree of Kelvin tell it all? Is it enough information to provide an illumination, which the patient can experience as homely and pleasant?This project seeks to highlight the design process of lighting a hospital ward and articulate visual as well as written what a homely and pleasant light atmosphere could be in a Danish context. Therefore, the study investigates the socio-cultural understanding and the geographical impact of the understanding of light atmosphere. ‘Model of Light Atmosphere’ (fig 0.6) describes four key aspects of light atmosphere and displays what is important when a light atmosphere is qualified. The four key aspects are: ‘Light’, ‘Space’, ‘Users’ and ‘Time’.The ‘Light’ aspect describes, as shown in (Fig 0.6), the character of the light, light information and light effect i.e. function, aesthetics or symbolism. The ‘Space’ aspect looks into the dimension of the space, geographical orientation, interior design, composition of the space, materials, surfaces and objects. The parameter ‘Time’ elaborates on the time one is present in the space, the season and time of day. The ‘Users’ aspect is split up into categories such as characteristics exploring the user group’s preferences and needs. The user group has quite diverse needs and preferences, while the staff needs task lighting and the patient a space experienced as homely and pleasant.Categories such as ‘pleasure’ and ‘activities’ are also a part of the user aspect. The space is divided into subcategories as ‘location of the space’ and ‘geographical orientation’. The interior design, surface and spatial composition of the space are also parameters of importance. The ‘Model of Light Atmosphere’ is the focal point of the project through iterative process and also developed through the study. First the model frames the study and later serves as a design tool for creating light atmosphere in hospital wards.The project is performed through four cycles of iterations. The first cycle elaborates on atmosphere. Here the study find its theoretical foundation based on Gernot Böhmes’ concept of atmosphere. It also finds its visual understand¬ing by studying the architects’ way to design atmosphere. The second cycle explores the users’ preferences and trends of light atmosphere in four exploratory studies. First presented is an observation of ward atmosphere. Hereafter a study of light preferences in Danish homes. Then, the trends of light atmosphere in Denmark are lastly an investigation on light zones at the hospital ward defined in order to optimize the illumination.The third cycle of iteration is an experimental study testing a lighting concept developed and grounded in the knowledge gained through the first and second cycle. The fourth cycle evaluates the effect of the light atmosphere at the ward. Here the patients are admitted to two similar wards not including the artificial illumination. The evalu¬ation uses Semantic Environmental Description developed by environmental psychiatrist Rikard Küller, in order to evaluate the light atmosphere.

KW - Lighting Design Parameters

KW - Hospital Wards

KW - Light Atmosphere

KW - Lighting Design Parameters

KW - Hospital Wards

KW - Light Atmosphere

M3 - Ph.D. thesis

BT - Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards

PB - Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University

CY - Aalborg

ER -

Stidsen LM. Light Atmosphere in Hospital Wards. Aalborg: Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, 2012. 452 s. (DCE Thesis; Nr. 40).