Current cellular networks based on Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and 3GPP2 technologies provide evolution from circuit-switched technologies, originally developed for voice communications, to packetswitched technologies. Next-generation networks need to deliver IP-based services (voice, video, multimedia, data, etc.) for all kinds of user terminals while moving between fixed (fiber, DSL, cable) and wireless (3GPP-based, 3GPP2-based, IEEE-based) access technologies, and roaming between various operator networks. Users expect the network to originate, terminate, and maintain a session while the user is moving and roaming. Services have to be delivered to users based on serving network functionality (quality of service [QoS], bandwidth, etc.), availability, and user preferences. The network and users must be protected through various authentication, encryption, and other security mechanisms at the access, network, and application layers. Mobility has to be provided through coordinated link, network, and application layer mobility mechanisms that ensure user expectations of service performance are met. Requirements on the radio technology include improved performance as well as reduced system and device complexity. 3GPP Release 8 specifies the architecture to meet the above requirements.