Pulmonary dysfunction is among the most frequent complications to cardiac surgeries. Exposure of blood to the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit with subsequent lung ischemia-reperfusion leads to the production of inflammatory mediators and increases in microvascular permeability. The study aimed to elucidate histological, cellular, and metabolite changes following two lung protective regimens during CPB with Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) enriched or warm oxygenated blood pulmonary perfusion compared to standard regimen with no pulmonary perfusion. A total of 90 patients undergoing CPB were randomized to receiving HTK, oxygenated blood or standard regimen. Of these, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue biopsies were obtained before and after CPB from 47 and 25 patients, respectively. Histopathological scores, BALF cell counts and metabolite screening were assessed. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed. Profound histological, cellular, and metabolic changes were identified in all patients after CPB. Histological and cellular changes were similar in the three groups; however, some metabolite profiles were different in the HTK patients. While all patients presented an increase in inflammatory cells, metabolic acidosis, protease activity and oxidative stress, HTK patients seemed to be protected against severe acidosis, excessive fatty acid oxidation, and inflammation during ischemia-reperfusion. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.