Objectives: The objective of the present systematic review was to assess the transverse skeletal and dental arch expansion and relapse after mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis with a bone-borne, tooth-borne or hybrid distraction appliance.
Material and Methods: A MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane library search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. Human studies published in English until the 3rd of July, 2018 were included.
Results: Two comparative and seven non-comparative studies characterized by high risk of bias fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Transverse mandibular widening was achieved with the different types of distraction appliance displaying a horizontal V-shaped opening with larger anterior transverse expansion declining progressively towards the posterior part of the mandible. Bone-borne and hybrid appliance facilitate more skeletal expansion compared with tooth-borne appliance, whereas comparable dental arch expansion was achieved with the different types of distraction appliance. Skeletal and dental arch relapse with the different type of appliance was limited and comparable. However, frequency of complications was higher with bone-borne appliance compared with tooth-borne or hybrid appliance.
Conclusions: Mandibular midline distraction osteogenesis with bone-borne, tooth-borne or hybrid distraction appliance is an effective treatment modality to correct severe transverse mandibular discrepancies, although the skeletal and dental arch expansion pattern was dissimilar with the different types of appliance. However, dissimilar evaluation methods, different outcome measures, various methodological confounding factors posed serious restrictions reviewing the literature in a quantitative systematic manner. Hence, well-designed long-term randomized controlled trials applying three-dimensional technology, patient-related outcome measures and an economic perspective are needed before definite conclusions can be provided.