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Objective: A high activity of the deiodinase type 2 has been proposed in overweight, obese, and smoking pregnant women as reflected by a high triiodothyronine (T3)/thyroxine (T4) ratio. We speculated how maternal adiposity and smoking would associate with different thyroid function tests in the early pregnancy. Design: Cross-sectional study within the North Denmark Region Pregnancy Cohort. Methods: Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T4 (TT4), total T3 (TT3), free T4 (fT4), and free T3 (fT3) were measured in stored blood samples (median gestational week 10) by an automatic immunoassay. Results were linked to nationwide registers, and live-birth pregnancies were included. The associations between maternal adiposity (overweight or obese), smoking, and log-transformed TSH, fT3/fT4 ratio, and TT3/TT4 ratio were assessed using multivariate linear regression and reported as adjusted exponentiated β coefficient (aβ) with 95% CI. The adjusted model included maternal age, parity, origin, week of blood sampling, and diabetes. Results: Altogether 5529 pregnant women were included, and 40% were classified with adiposity, whereas 10% were smoking. Maternal adiposity was associated with higher TSH (aβ 1.13 (95% CI 1.08–1.20)), whereas maternal smoking was associated with lower TSH in the early pregnancy (0.875 (0.806–0.950)). Considering the T3/T4 ratio, both maternal adiposity (fT3/fT4 ratio: 1.06 (1.05–1.07); TT3/TT4 ratio: 1.07 (1.06–1.08)) and smoking (fT3/fT4 ratio: 1.07 (1.06–1.09); TT3/TT4 ratio: 1.10 (1.09–1.12)) were associated with a higher ratio. Conclusions: In a large cohort of Danish pregnant women, adiposity and smoking showed opposite associations with maternal TSH. On the other hand, both conditions were associated with a higher T3/T4 ratio in early pregnancy, which may reflect altered deiodinase activity.

TidsskriftEndocrine Connections
Udgave nummer9
Sider (fra-til)1125-1133
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2021


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