As a counterpoint to Prashantham and Birkinshaw, I present an alternative model of MNE–SME cooperation where either type of firms can take the role of content provider or distributor. I argue that MNEs will interact with SMEs when there are differences in optimal scale between the content creation and distribution stages of the value chain, and it is not feasible or efficient for either party to vertically integrate between these two stages. I then build two 2 × 2 bundling models, one in which the SME provides content and the MNE distributes it, and another with the reverse configuration. In these 2 × 2s the axes are the transactional properties of the two complementary inputs, content and distribution, that MNEs and SMEs bundle to create value. I show that these models can explain the forms taken by MNE–SME cooperation and their dynamics.