Postpartum placental CT angiography in normal pregnancies and in those complicated by diabetes mellitus

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Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM) is a central obstetric problem often complicated by fetal macrosomia and increased risk of intrapartum asphyxia. This risk might be explained by fetoplacental vascular abnormalities. This study aimed to investigate the fetoplacental vascular volume by placental CT angiography in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by type 1 DM (T1DM), diet controlled gestational DM (GDMd), and insulin treated gestational DM (GDMi). Methods: Postpartum, barium contrast enhanced placental CT angiography was performed in 27 normal pregnancies and 25 DM pregnancies (8 T1DM, 8 GDMd, and 9 GDMi). The fetoplacental vascular volume/placenta weight (FVV/PW)-ratio and fetoplacental vascular volume/birth weight (FVV/BW)-ratio of each diabetic group were compared to the normal group with multiple regression analysis adjusted for GA. In all pregnancies a standardized histopathological placental examination was performed postpartum. Results: In normal pregnancies, the fetoplacental vascular volume increased with GA (p < 0.001), placental weight (p < 0.001), and birth weight (p < 0.001). In T1DM and GDMi pregnancies, the gestational age adjusted placental weight and the birth weight were increased when compared to normal pregnancies (p < 0.05). The FVV/BW-ratio was significantly reduced in both T1DM and GDMi pregnancies when compared to normal pregnancies (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009, respectively). Discussion: This study demonstrates, that in insulin treated DM pregnancies the fetus as well as the placenta is larger than normal. However, despite a large placenta, a relatively smaller fetoplacental vascular volume supplies the macrosomic fetus. This finding might explain why fetuses from insulin treated DM pregnancies have high vulnerability to intrauterine and intrapartum asphyxia.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftPlacenta
Vol/bind69
Sider (fra-til)20-25
Antal sider6
ISSN0143-4004
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2018

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