Prevalence of nocturia and fecal and urinary incontinence and the association to childhood obesity: a study of 6803 Danish schoolchildren

Tine Caroc Warner, Ulrik Baandrup, Ronni Jacobsen, Henrik Bøggild, Patrick Simon Aunsholt Østergaard, Søren Hagstrøm

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

Introduction: Fecal and urinary incontinence are common disorders in children. Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become increasingly common, and a relation between obesity, nocturia, incontinence, and nocturnal enuresis has been suggested. Objective: This large scale population study aims to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), nocturnal enuresis (NE), and nocturia in children at school entry and in adolescence and to clarify whether obesity is associated to any of the aforementioned symptoms. Study design: First-grade children and their parents and adolescents in the seventh to ninth grades were interviewed in relation to school nurse visits. The interview included questions on whether incontinence or nocturia were experienced at least once per month. The participants' age was recorded, and weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and age standardized by the use of BMI-standard deviation score (SDS), with reference to World Health Organization normative BMI data. Obesity was defined as BMI-SDS >2. Associations between obesity and incontinence and nocturia were quantified by odds ratio (OR). Results: Completed interview questionnaires and measurements were obtained from 4002 children (95.1%) in the child population and 2801 adolescents (84.4%) in the adolescent population. The mean age of children was 6.45 ± 0.39 years, and 4.4% were obese. Overall 11.2% reported FI, 21.8% DUI, 16.8% NE, and 31.4% experienced nocturia. Obesity was associated with FI in first-grade boys (OR 1.86 compared with normal weight). Mean age of adolescents was 13.9 ± 0.85 years, and 7.6% of adolescent boys and 5.5% of the girls were obese. Fecal incontinence was reported by 2.1% of the adolescents, 4.5% had DUI, 1.0% stated to have NE, and 32.3% reported nocturia. Obesity was significantly associated with nocturia in adolescents (OR 1.74–2.01). Discussion: The prevalence of nocturia seems constant throughout childhood and adolescent life; this has not previously been documented. Incontinence is very common at school entry, with DUI reported more frequently than enuresis by both children and adolescents. Obesity is associated with nocturia in adolescents and FI in first-grade boys, but no significant association between obesity and NE or DUI is found. Strength of this study is the very high participation rates, but the study does not reveal information on previous treatment, subtype, or severity of symptoms. Conclusions: Incontinence is very common in children. One-third of both children and adolescents experience nocturia. Obesity is associated with FI in first-grade boys and nocturia in adolescents.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Pediatric Urology
Vol/bind15
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)225.e1-225.e8
Antal sider8
ISSN1477-5131
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2019

Fingerprint

Nocturia
Fecal Incontinence
Pediatric Obesity
Urinary Incontinence
Diurnal Enuresis
Obesity
Nocturnal Enuresis
Body Mass Index
Odds Ratio
Interviews
Population
Enuresis
Weights and Measures

Citer dette

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title = "Prevalence of nocturia and fecal and urinary incontinence and the association to childhood obesity: a study of 6803 Danish schoolchildren",
abstract = "Introduction: Fecal and urinary incontinence are common disorders in children. Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become increasingly common, and a relation between obesity, nocturia, incontinence, and nocturnal enuresis has been suggested. Objective: This large scale population study aims to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), nocturnal enuresis (NE), and nocturia in children at school entry and in adolescence and to clarify whether obesity is associated to any of the aforementioned symptoms. Study design: First-grade children and their parents and adolescents in the seventh to ninth grades were interviewed in relation to school nurse visits. The interview included questions on whether incontinence or nocturia were experienced at least once per month. The participants' age was recorded, and weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and age standardized by the use of BMI-standard deviation score (SDS), with reference to World Health Organization normative BMI data. Obesity was defined as BMI-SDS >2. Associations between obesity and incontinence and nocturia were quantified by odds ratio (OR). Results: Completed interview questionnaires and measurements were obtained from 4002 children (95.1{\%}) in the child population and 2801 adolescents (84.4{\%}) in the adolescent population. The mean age of children was 6.45 ± 0.39 years, and 4.4{\%} were obese. Overall 11.2{\%} reported FI, 21.8{\%} DUI, 16.8{\%} NE, and 31.4{\%} experienced nocturia. Obesity was associated with FI in first-grade boys (OR 1.86 compared with normal weight). Mean age of adolescents was 13.9 ± 0.85 years, and 7.6{\%} of adolescent boys and 5.5{\%} of the girls were obese. Fecal incontinence was reported by 2.1{\%} of the adolescents, 4.5{\%} had DUI, 1.0{\%} stated to have NE, and 32.3{\%} reported nocturia. Obesity was significantly associated with nocturia in adolescents (OR 1.74–2.01). Discussion: The prevalence of nocturia seems constant throughout childhood and adolescent life; this has not previously been documented. Incontinence is very common at school entry, with DUI reported more frequently than enuresis by both children and adolescents. Obesity is associated with nocturia in adolescents and FI in first-grade boys, but no significant association between obesity and NE or DUI is found. Strength of this study is the very high participation rates, but the study does not reveal information on previous treatment, subtype, or severity of symptoms. Conclusions: Incontinence is very common in children. One-third of both children and adolescents experience nocturia. Obesity is associated with FI in first-grade boys and nocturia in adolescents.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Child, Enuresis, Incontinence, Nocturia, Obesity",
author = "Warner, {Tine Caroc} and Ulrik Baandrup and Ronni Jacobsen and Henrik B{\o}ggild and {\O}stergaard, {Patrick Simon Aunsholt} and S{\o}ren Hagstr{\o}m",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.02.004",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "225.e1--225.e8",
journal = "Journal of Pediatric Urology",
issn = "1477-5131",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

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Prevalence of nocturia and fecal and urinary incontinence and the association to childhood obesity : a study of 6803 Danish schoolchildren. / Warner, Tine Caroc; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Ronni; Bøggild, Henrik; Østergaard, Patrick Simon Aunsholt; Hagstrøm, Søren.

I: Journal of Pediatric Urology, Bind 15, Nr. 3, 05.2019, s. 225.e1-225.e8.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of nocturia and fecal and urinary incontinence and the association to childhood obesity

T2 - a study of 6803 Danish schoolchildren

AU - Warner, Tine Caroc

AU - Baandrup, Ulrik

AU - Jacobsen, Ronni

AU - Bøggild, Henrik

AU - Østergaard, Patrick Simon Aunsholt

AU - Hagstrøm, Søren

PY - 2019/5

Y1 - 2019/5

N2 - Introduction: Fecal and urinary incontinence are common disorders in children. Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become increasingly common, and a relation between obesity, nocturia, incontinence, and nocturnal enuresis has been suggested. Objective: This large scale population study aims to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), nocturnal enuresis (NE), and nocturia in children at school entry and in adolescence and to clarify whether obesity is associated to any of the aforementioned symptoms. Study design: First-grade children and their parents and adolescents in the seventh to ninth grades were interviewed in relation to school nurse visits. The interview included questions on whether incontinence or nocturia were experienced at least once per month. The participants' age was recorded, and weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and age standardized by the use of BMI-standard deviation score (SDS), with reference to World Health Organization normative BMI data. Obesity was defined as BMI-SDS >2. Associations between obesity and incontinence and nocturia were quantified by odds ratio (OR). Results: Completed interview questionnaires and measurements were obtained from 4002 children (95.1%) in the child population and 2801 adolescents (84.4%) in the adolescent population. The mean age of children was 6.45 ± 0.39 years, and 4.4% were obese. Overall 11.2% reported FI, 21.8% DUI, 16.8% NE, and 31.4% experienced nocturia. Obesity was associated with FI in first-grade boys (OR 1.86 compared with normal weight). Mean age of adolescents was 13.9 ± 0.85 years, and 7.6% of adolescent boys and 5.5% of the girls were obese. Fecal incontinence was reported by 2.1% of the adolescents, 4.5% had DUI, 1.0% stated to have NE, and 32.3% reported nocturia. Obesity was significantly associated with nocturia in adolescents (OR 1.74–2.01). Discussion: The prevalence of nocturia seems constant throughout childhood and adolescent life; this has not previously been documented. Incontinence is very common at school entry, with DUI reported more frequently than enuresis by both children and adolescents. Obesity is associated with nocturia in adolescents and FI in first-grade boys, but no significant association between obesity and NE or DUI is found. Strength of this study is the very high participation rates, but the study does not reveal information on previous treatment, subtype, or severity of symptoms. Conclusions: Incontinence is very common in children. One-third of both children and adolescents experience nocturia. Obesity is associated with FI in first-grade boys and nocturia in adolescents.

AB - Introduction: Fecal and urinary incontinence are common disorders in children. Obesity and its associated comorbidities have become increasingly common, and a relation between obesity, nocturia, incontinence, and nocturnal enuresis has been suggested. Objective: This large scale population study aims to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI), daytime urinary incontinence (DUI), nocturnal enuresis (NE), and nocturia in children at school entry and in adolescence and to clarify whether obesity is associated to any of the aforementioned symptoms. Study design: First-grade children and their parents and adolescents in the seventh to ninth grades were interviewed in relation to school nurse visits. The interview included questions on whether incontinence or nocturia were experienced at least once per month. The participants' age was recorded, and weight and height were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and age standardized by the use of BMI-standard deviation score (SDS), with reference to World Health Organization normative BMI data. Obesity was defined as BMI-SDS >2. Associations between obesity and incontinence and nocturia were quantified by odds ratio (OR). Results: Completed interview questionnaires and measurements were obtained from 4002 children (95.1%) in the child population and 2801 adolescents (84.4%) in the adolescent population. The mean age of children was 6.45 ± 0.39 years, and 4.4% were obese. Overall 11.2% reported FI, 21.8% DUI, 16.8% NE, and 31.4% experienced nocturia. Obesity was associated with FI in first-grade boys (OR 1.86 compared with normal weight). Mean age of adolescents was 13.9 ± 0.85 years, and 7.6% of adolescent boys and 5.5% of the girls were obese. Fecal incontinence was reported by 2.1% of the adolescents, 4.5% had DUI, 1.0% stated to have NE, and 32.3% reported nocturia. Obesity was significantly associated with nocturia in adolescents (OR 1.74–2.01). Discussion: The prevalence of nocturia seems constant throughout childhood and adolescent life; this has not previously been documented. Incontinence is very common at school entry, with DUI reported more frequently than enuresis by both children and adolescents. Obesity is associated with nocturia in adolescents and FI in first-grade boys, but no significant association between obesity and NE or DUI is found. Strength of this study is the very high participation rates, but the study does not reveal information on previous treatment, subtype, or severity of symptoms. Conclusions: Incontinence is very common in children. One-third of both children and adolescents experience nocturia. Obesity is associated with FI in first-grade boys and nocturia in adolescents.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Child

KW - Enuresis

KW - Incontinence

KW - Nocturia

KW - Obesity

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.02.004

DO - 10.1016/j.jpurol.2019.02.004

M3 - Journal article

VL - 15

SP - 225.e1-225.e8

JO - Journal of Pediatric Urology

JF - Journal of Pediatric Urology

SN - 1477-5131

IS - 3

ER -