Background We investigated the recent 10-year trends in the number of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in relation to prescription patterns of antithrombotic therapy. Methods We analyzed the annual prevalence of PCI and patterns of antithrombotic therapy after PCI, including antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants [NOACs]), in patients with AF between 2006 and 2015 by using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Independent factors associated with triple therapy (oral anticoagulant plus dual antiplatelet) prescription were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The number of patients with AF undergoing PCI increased gradually from 2006 (n = 2,140) to 2015 (n = 3,631) (p trend <0.001). In 2006, only 22.7% of patients received triple therapy after PCI although 96.2% of them were indicated for anticoagulation (CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score 2). The prescription rate of triple therapy increased to 38.3% in 2015 (p trend <0.001), which was mainly attributed to a recent increment of NOAC-based triple therapy from 2013 (17.5% in 2015). Previous ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, old age, hypertension, and congestive heart failure were significantly associated with a higher triple therapy prescription rate, whereas previous myocardial infarction, PCI, and peripheral arterial disease were associated with triple therapy underuse. Conclusions From 2006 to 2015, the number of patients with AF undergoing PCI and the prescription rate of triple therapy increased gradually with a recent increment of NOAC-based antithrombotic therapy from 2013. Previous myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, and PCI were associated with underuse of triple therapy.