The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings: Tracer Gas Simulation

N.P. Gao, J. L. Niu, M. Perino, Per Heiselberg

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

90 Citationer (Scopus)

Resumé

Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households in high-rise residential buildings, one of which is the natural ventilative airflow through open windows between flats, caused by buoyancy effects. Our early on-site measurement using tracer gases confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively that the re-entry of the exhaust-polluted air from the window of the lower floor into the adjacent upper floor is a fact. This study presents the modeling of this cascade effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. It is found that the presence of the pollutants generated in the lower floor is generally lower in the immediate upper floor by two orders of magnitude, but the risk of infection calculated by the Wells-Riley equation is only around one order of magnitude lower. It is found that, with single-side open-window conditions, wind blowing perpendicularly to the building may either reinforce or suppress the upward transport, depending on the wind speed. High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control.
Udgivelsesdato: NOV
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftBuilding and Environment
Vol/bind43
Udgave nummer11
Sider (fra-til)1805-1817
Antal sider13
ISSN0360-1323
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2008

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residential building
tracer
air
simulation
Gases
gas
airflow
occupational reintegration
wind velocity
Air curtains
severe acute respiratory syndrome
pollutant
Pulmonary diseases
heat
respiratory disease
contagious disease
Cascades (fluid mechanics)
Reentry
infectious disease
Blow molding

Citer dette

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title = "The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings: Tracer Gas Simulation",
abstract = "Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households in high-rise residential buildings, one of which is the natural ventilative airflow through open windows between flats, caused by buoyancy effects. Our early on-site measurement using tracer gases confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively that the re-entry of the exhaust-polluted air from the window of the lower floor into the adjacent upper floor is a fact. This study presents the modeling of this cascade effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. It is found that the presence of the pollutants generated in the lower floor is generally lower in the immediate upper floor by two orders of magnitude, but the risk of infection calculated by the Wells-Riley equation is only around one order of magnitude lower. It is found that, with single-side open-window conditions, wind blowing perpendicularly to the building may either reinforce or suppress the upward transport, depending on the wind speed. High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control.",
keywords = "Airborne transmission, High-rise residential buildings, Cascade effect, Tracer gas, Computational fluid dynamics, CFD",
author = "N.P. Gao and Niu, {J. L.} and M. Perino and Per Heiselberg",
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The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings : Tracer Gas Simulation. / Gao, N.P.; Niu, J. L.; Perino, M.; Heiselberg, Per.

I: Building and Environment, Bind 43, Nr. 11, 2008, s. 1805-1817.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings

T2 - Tracer Gas Simulation

AU - Gao, N.P.

AU - Niu, J. L.

AU - Perino, M.

AU - Heiselberg, Per

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households in high-rise residential buildings, one of which is the natural ventilative airflow through open windows between flats, caused by buoyancy effects. Our early on-site measurement using tracer gases confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively that the re-entry of the exhaust-polluted air from the window of the lower floor into the adjacent upper floor is a fact. This study presents the modeling of this cascade effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. It is found that the presence of the pollutants generated in the lower floor is generally lower in the immediate upper floor by two orders of magnitude, but the risk of infection calculated by the Wells-Riley equation is only around one order of magnitude lower. It is found that, with single-side open-window conditions, wind blowing perpendicularly to the building may either reinforce or suppress the upward transport, depending on the wind speed. High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control.

AB - Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households in high-rise residential buildings, one of which is the natural ventilative airflow through open windows between flats, caused by buoyancy effects. Our early on-site measurement using tracer gases confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively that the re-entry of the exhaust-polluted air from the window of the lower floor into the adjacent upper floor is a fact. This study presents the modeling of this cascade effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. It is found that the presence of the pollutants generated in the lower floor is generally lower in the immediate upper floor by two orders of magnitude, but the risk of infection calculated by the Wells-Riley equation is only around one order of magnitude lower. It is found that, with single-side open-window conditions, wind blowing perpendicularly to the building may either reinforce or suppress the upward transport, depending on the wind speed. High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control.

KW - Airborne transmission

KW - High-rise residential buildings

KW - Cascade effect

KW - Tracer gas

KW - Computational fluid dynamics

KW - CFD

U2 - doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.10.023

DO - doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.10.023

M3 - Journal article

VL - 43

SP - 1805

EP - 1817

JO - Building and Environment

JF - Building and Environment

SN - 0360-1323

IS - 11

ER -