Background: Many organs can remain impaired after discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) leading to temporal or permanent dysfunctions. Long-term impairments may be affected by supplemental oxygen, a common treatment in ICU, having both potential beneficial and harmful long-lasting effects. This systematic review aims to assess the long-term outcomes of lower versus higher oxygen supplementation and/or oxygenation levels in adults admitted to ICU. Methods: We will include trials differentiating between a lower and a higher oxygen supplementation or a lower and a higher oxygenation strategy in adults admitted to the ICU. We will search major electronic databases and trial registers for randomised clinical trials. Two authors will independently screen and select references for inclusion using Covidence and predefined data will be extracted. The methodological quality and risk of bias of included trials will be evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2. Meta-analysis will be performed if two or more trials with comparable outcome measures will be included. Otherwise, a narrative description of the trials’ results will be presented instead. To assess the certainty of evidence, we will create a ‘Summary of findings’ table containing all prespecified outcomes using the GRADE system. The protocol is submitted on the PROSPERO database (ID 223630). Conclusion: No systematic reviews on the impact of oxygen treatment in the ICU on long-term outcomes, other than mortality and quality of life, have been reported yet. This systematic review will provide an overview of the current evidence and will help future research in the field.