AIMS: Native valve aortic stenosis is associated with adverse remodelling of the left ventricle and remodelling is stopped or even reversed with aortic valve replacement (AVR). However, the degeneration of bioprostheses and development of structural valve deterioration (SVD) may affect this.
METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess the association with SVD, remodelling and outcome 451 patients from a single surgical centre who had undergone AVR with a Mitroflow pericardial bioprosthesis were studied. All patients were assessed in 2014 and a subgroup of patients (N = 327) were re-exanimated again after at least 18 months [median time of 27 (interquartile range, IQR 26-33) months] including echocardiography, measurements of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and assessment of functional status. SVD was based on echocardiography. Moderate SVD was present in 63 patients (14%) and severe SVD in 19 (4%), in the subgroup with follow-up echocardiography 48 patients (15%) patients had moderate to severe SVD at first examination. Patients with SVD had significantly greater increase in left ventricular (LV) mass index [21.6 g/m2 (IQR 5.7-48.3 g/m2) vs. 9.1 g/m2 (-8.6 to 27.3 g/m2), P = 0.01]. Further, patients with SVD had lower LV ejection fraction [55% (IQR 51-62%) vs. 60% (IQR 54-63%), P = 0.01] at follow-up. During follow-up, 94 patients (21%) met the composite endpoint of death or reoperation due to SVD and 41 patient readmitted for heart failure. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, severe SVD [hazard ratio (HR) 2.64 (1.37-5.07), P = 0.004] was associated with composite endpoint, and readmission for heart failure [HR 3.82 (1.53-9.51), P = 0.004].
CONCLUSION: SVD in aortic bioprostheses is associated with adverse LV remodelling and adverse outcome.