Ischemic conditioning and exercise have been suggested for protecting against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the endogenous protective mechanisms stimulated by these interventions remain unclear. Here, in a comprehensive translational study, we investigated the protective role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released after remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE), or high-load resistance exercise (HLRE). Blood samples were collected from human participants before and at serial time points after intervention. RIC and BFRRE plasma EVs released early after stimulation improved viability of endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Furthermore, post-RIC EVs accumulated in the ischemic area of a stroke mouse model, and a mean decrease in infarct volume was observed for post-RIC EVs, although not reaching statistical significance. Thus, circulating EVs induced by RIC and BFRRE can mediate protection, but the in vivo and translational effects of conditioned EVs require further experimental verification.