Use of Low-Level Sensor Data to Improve the Accuracy of Bluetooth-Based Travel Time Estimation

Bahar Namaki Araghi, Lars Tørholm Christensen, Rajesh Krishnan, Jonas Hammershøj Olesen, Harry Lahrmann

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

4 Citationer (Scopus)

Resumé

Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared with other static vehicle reidentification systems. A larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, yet increases the probability of multiple detection events being triggered by a single device. The latter situation could lead to location ambiguity and could reduce the accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology depends on how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has been simplistic. Most previous studies have used the first detection event (enter-enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis has been conducted to explore the most accurate method of travel time estimation with multiple detection events. In this study, different aspects of the Bluetooth detection zone, including size and impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, were discussed. Four methods were applied to estimate travel time: enter-enter, leave-leave, peak-peak, and combined. These methods were developed on the basis of various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the methods through comparison with the ground truth travel time data measured by Global Positioning System technology. The results showed that the accuracy of the combined and peak-peak methods was higher than that of the other methods and that the employment of the first detection event did not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
BogserieTransportation Research Record
Vol/bind2338
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)29-34
ISSN0361-1981
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2013

Citer dette

Araghi, Bahar Namaki ; Christensen, Lars Tørholm ; Krishnan, Rajesh ; Olesen, Jonas Hammershøj ; Lahrmann, Harry. / Use of Low-Level Sensor Data to Improve the Accuracy of Bluetooth-Based Travel Time Estimation. I: Transportation Research Record. 2013 ; Bind 2338, Nr. 1. s. 29-34.
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abstract = "Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared with other static vehicle reidentification systems. A larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, yet increases the probability of multiple detection events being triggered by a single device. The latter situation could lead to location ambiguity and could reduce the accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology depends on how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has been simplistic. Most previous studies have used the first detection event (enter-enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis has been conducted to explore the most accurate method of travel time estimation with multiple detection events. In this study, different aspects of the Bluetooth detection zone, including size and impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, were discussed. Four methods were applied to estimate travel time: enter-enter, leave-leave, peak-peak, and combined. These methods were developed on the basis of various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the methods through comparison with the ground truth travel time data measured by Global Positioning System technology. The results showed that the accuracy of the combined and peak-peak methods was higher than that of the other methods and that the employment of the first detection event did not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.",
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Use of Low-Level Sensor Data to Improve the Accuracy of Bluetooth-Based Travel Time Estimation. / Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Christensen, Lars Tørholm ; Krishnan, Rajesh ; Olesen, Jonas Hammershøj; Lahrmann, Harry.

I: Transportation Research Record, Bind 2338, Nr. 1, 2013, s. 29-34.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Use of Low-Level Sensor Data to Improve the Accuracy of Bluetooth-Based Travel Time Estimation

AU - Araghi, Bahar Namaki

AU - Christensen, Lars Tørholm

AU - Krishnan, Rajesh

AU - Olesen, Jonas Hammershøj

AU - Lahrmann, Harry

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared with other static vehicle reidentification systems. A larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, yet increases the probability of multiple detection events being triggered by a single device. The latter situation could lead to location ambiguity and could reduce the accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology depends on how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has been simplistic. Most previous studies have used the first detection event (enter-enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis has been conducted to explore the most accurate method of travel time estimation with multiple detection events. In this study, different aspects of the Bluetooth detection zone, including size and impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, were discussed. Four methods were applied to estimate travel time: enter-enter, leave-leave, peak-peak, and combined. These methods were developed on the basis of various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the methods through comparison with the ground truth travel time data measured by Global Positioning System technology. The results showed that the accuracy of the combined and peak-peak methods was higher than that of the other methods and that the employment of the first detection event did not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.

AB - Bluetooth sensors have a large detection zone compared with other static vehicle reidentification systems. A larger detection zone increases the probability of detecting a Bluetooth-enabled device in a fast-moving vehicle, yet increases the probability of multiple detection events being triggered by a single device. The latter situation could lead to location ambiguity and could reduce the accuracy of travel time estimation. Therefore, the accuracy of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology depends on how location ambiguity is handled by the estimation method. The issue of multiple detection events in the context of travel time estimation by Bluetooth technology has been considered by various researchers. However, treatment of this issue has been simplistic. Most previous studies have used the first detection event (enter-enter) as the best estimate. No systematic analysis has been conducted to explore the most accurate method of travel time estimation with multiple detection events. In this study, different aspects of the Bluetooth detection zone, including size and impact on the accuracy of travel time estimation, were discussed. Four methods were applied to estimate travel time: enter-enter, leave-leave, peak-peak, and combined. These methods were developed on the basis of various technical considerations related to multiple detection events. A controlled field experiment was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the methods through comparison with the ground truth travel time data measured by Global Positioning System technology. The results showed that the accuracy of the combined and peak-peak methods was higher than that of the other methods and that the employment of the first detection event did not necessarily yield the best travel time estimation.

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