Background: The treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains challenging and outcomes extremely poor. The introduction of venetoclax has transformed the treatment of AML and emerging data suggest that venetoclax-based therapy may enforce salvage treatment. Materials and Methods: In this nationwide Danish retrospective study, we analysed treatment outcomes of venetoclax-based salvage treatment for R/R AML between 2019 and 2022. Only venetoclax-naive patients who had previously received treatment with intensive chemotherapy therapy were included. Results: The cohort consisted of 43 R/R patients with a median age of 57 years. Nine (20.9%) were primary refractory and 34 (79.1%) patients had relapsed, including 21 after previous allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The overall response rate was 76.2% including 61.9% with composite complete remission (CRc: CR + CRi). Among CRc-responders with information on measurable residual disease (MRD), 8/13 (61.5%) obtained an MRD-negativity response. The overall survival was 9.3 months for all patients with an estimated 1-year overall survival of 34%. For CRc-responders the median overall survival was 13.3 months, and the median relapse-free survival was 12.8 months. Conclusion: Venetoclax-based salvage treatment for R/R AML produced high response rates; however, for most patients the response was of limited duration. This study is limited by an observational design and prone to selection bias.
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
The study was supported by the Danish Cancer Society (Grant no. R327‐A18949). DTK received funding from the Danish Acute Leukemia Group, Jørgen Holms Memorial Grant, Jakob Madsens Grant, Health Research Foundation of North Denmark Region, Inge og Jørgen Larsens Memorial Grant, Research Grant from Clinic for Surgery and Oncology at Aalborg University Hospital, and the Danish Cancer Research Foundation.
Daniel Tuyet Kristensen: Consulting fees: AbbVie, Atheneum, Astellas Pharma. Anne Louise Tølbøll Sørensen: Consultancy fees; Servier and AbbVie, travel grant; AbbVie. Claudia Schöllkopf: Consultancy fees; BMS, travel grant; AbbVie and Jazz Pharmaceuticals. Anne Stidsholt Roug: Consulting fees: AbbVie and Pfizer, travel grant; Jazz Pharmaceuticals. All other authors declare no conflicts of interest.
© 2023 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.