Aims: To review studies examining the appendiceal microbiota and microbial changes in acute appendicitis. Methods: After a systematic literature search, 11 studies examining the appendiceal microbiota (414 samples) using non-culture-based methods were included. Results: The appendiceal microbiota showed decreased α-diversity compared with fecal microbiota. Inflamed and uninflamed appendices showed differences in β-diversity, and there was an increased abundance of oral-associated bacteria in inflamed versus uninflamed appendices. Conclusion: The appendiceal microbiota exhibits lower α-diversity than the fecal microbiota, with an increased abundance of oral-associated bacteria. Compared with uninflamed appendices, the appendix microbiota in acute appendicitis also showed increased abundance of oral-associated bacteria, but no bacterial profile unique to either complicated or uncomplicated appendicitis was found.