Catalytic co-hydrothermal liquefaction of binary and ternary mixtures of rye straw, shellfish and beef tallow for sustainable production of high-grade biocrude-oil to drop-in transport fuel

Project Details


The transport sector is the highest consumer of fossil fuels accounting for 96% of the global energy, which correspond to 65% of the global crude oil consumption. The escalating consumption of fossil fuel causes deleterious environmental pollution by releasing > 7 billion tons of CO2 in the atmosphere. The awareness to transition from conventional fossil fuel to eco-friendly options has resulted in several decarbonization strategies with Europe’s priority to develop new alternative and carbon-neutral energy sources based on a cost-effective biomass-based thermochemical conversion. Hence, the objective of CO-HTL4BIO-OIL is to develop commercially viable catalytic co-hydrothermal liquefaction (CO-HTL) that converts 2G wet solid food by-products such as rye straw, shellfish, and beef tallow into a sustainable transport fuel with potential 100% atom efficiency, low production costs, and zero CO2 emissions. The specific experiments include: (1) identify proper pretreatment prior to CO-HTL for efficient removal of undesirable heteroatoms (2) validate baseline Lab-scale CO-HTL by determining integrated models of HTL parameters and proportions of binary/ternary mixtures; (3) establish efficient catalytic upgrading to bring the HTL intermediate bio-crude oil to drop-in transport fuel; (4) carry out bench-scale HTL for techno-economic assessment. It is anticipated that an in-depth study on the HTL parameters, optimization of the CO-HTL process, and techno-economic assessment will provide an outlook scenario of the industrial-scale process for high biofuels production capacity. Therefore, CO-HTL4BIO-OIL will diversify my scientific competencies in renewable energy and equip me with new transferable skills. Thus, combining my skills in carbon-based biomaterials with the host’s expertise in advanced biofuels, a mutual benefit will be realized. The project will positively impact Europe’s knowledge-based economy and society towards sustainable and green transportation.

Layman's description

CO-HTL4BIO-OIL project (CoBiol) has received funding from EU’s Horizon 2020 under Marie-Curie grant agreement No 895710

Key findings

Food waste
Hydrothermal liquefaction
Crude bio-oil
Drop-in transport fuel
Short titleCO-HTL4BIO-OIL project
Effective start/end date01/03/202128/02/2023

UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This project contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 6 - Clean Water and Sanitation
  • SDG 7 - Affordable and Clean Energy
  • SDG 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production
  • SDG 13 - Climate Action


  • biofuels
  • Biomass
  • char
  • Wastewater
  • CoBiol
  • food waste
  • Circular Economy
  • Sustainability
  • hydrothermal liquefaction
  • drop-in transport fuel


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