The goal of Heat Roadmap Europe 4 (HRE4) has been to develop low-carbon heating and cooling strategies, called Heat Roadmaps, by quantifying and implementing changes at the national level for 14 EU Member States, which together account for approximately 85-90% of total heating and cooling in Europe. Specifically, we aim to:
i. Build evidence that supports decarbonization of the heating and cooling sector in Europe.
ii. Redesign the energy sector by combining the knowledge of local waste heat conditions and potential savings with an energy system analysis.
iii. Promote transparency in energy research by sharing data, results, models and methodologies on open platforms as well as be open for new partnerships.
Decarbonising Heating and Cooling requires energy efficiency on both the demand and supply side of the heat sector.
Heat Savings can cost-effectively reduce the total heat demand in Europe by approximately 30-50%.
District Heating can capture excess heat, which is currently being wasted, and can replace fossil energy sources to heat EU cities. Based on cost and energy considerations, district heating should increase from today’s level of 10% up to 50% by 2050. Suitable urban areas for district heating are outlined in the mapping.
Individual Heat Pumps connect cheap renewable electricity production (such as wind and solar) with efficient renewable heat production (due to their COP). They should supply the majority of the heat demand in low heat-density areas, typically outside of the towns and cities.
Large heat pumps and other proven technologies can provide next generation district heating with renewable heat.
Energy System: Thermal storage is approximately 100 times cheaper than electricity storage, so introducing district heating and heat pumps will play a key role in accommodating larger penetrations of wind and solar electricity, in line with the Smart Energy System approach.