Even with the consistent growth in global photovoltaic (PV) capacity, the necessity for fault detection in PV systems has not been widely addressed regardless of its importance. With International Electrotechnical Commission, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and National Electric Code protection standard recommendations for PV systems being vulnerable to fault occurrences, advanced detection techniques are inevitable in PV systems to avail guaranteed protection from electric shocks and fire hazards. Even though numerous fault detection techniques have been conceptualized in last few years, these techniques are yet to be classified and quantified in a common platform. Hence, this paper takes up an initiative to study, classify and analyze the advanced fault detection approaches available in literature. Each fault detection technique is segregated based on the detection approach and are reviewed with respect to: types of faults detected; detection time; sensor requirement; procedural complexity; detection variables; and level of protection achieved. Furthermore, a compatibility study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced fault detection techniques for protection against line-line, line-ground, and arc faults that are most common in PV systems. Overall, this investigation serves as a valuable reference for researchers to improve fault detection possibilities in PV systems.
- Fault diagnosis
- Photovoltaic power systems
- Protection and solar power generation
- Protection standards