A comparison of head-mounted and hand-held displays for 360° videos with focus on attitude and behavior change

Diana Fonseca, Martin Kraus

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


The present study is designed to test how immersion, presence, and narrative content (with a focus on emotional immersion) can affect one's pro-environmental attitude and behavior with specific interest in 360° videos and meat consumption as a non pro-environmental behavior. This research describes a between-group design experiment that compares two systems with different levels of immersion and two types of narratives, one with and one without emotional content. In the immersive video (IV) condition (high immersion), 21 participants used a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) to watch an emotional 360° video about meat consumption and its effects on the environment; another 21 participants experienced the tablet condition (low immersion) where they viewed the same video but with a 10.1 inch tablet; 22 participants in the control condition viewed a non emotional video about submarines with an HMD. The purpose of the experiment was to test the effect of presence and emotional impact on pro-environmental attitude and behavior. In a questionnaire, self-reported measurements were used to address presence, emotional impact and pro-environmental attitude, while an unobtrusive method evaluated pro-environmental behavior. The results showed that both immersion and emotional impact enhance self-reported presence; higher immersion and emotional impact enhanced pro-environmental attitude; narrative content and emotional immersion (i.e., personal attachment to the characters) enhanced pro-environmental behavior. Higher immersion appeared to increase pro-environmental behavior but not significantly.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 20th International Academic Mindtrek Conference : AcademicMindtrek '16
Place of PublicationNew York, NY, USA
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Publication date2016
ISBN (Print)978-1-4503-4367-1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
EventAcademic Mindtrek 2016 - Tampere, Finland
Duration: 17 Oct 201618 Oct 2016
Conference number: 20


ConferenceAcademic Mindtrek 2016
Internet address


  • Immersive video
  • Presence
  • Immersion
  • Head-mounted display
  • 360 video
  • Pro-environmental behaviour


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