A Conceptual Framework for Value Co-Creation in Service Enterprises (Case of Tourism Agencies)

Fatemeh Hamidi, Naser Shams Gharneh*, Datis Khajeheian

*Corresponding author

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Traditional companies used to design products, evaluate marketing messages, and control product distribution channels with a low level of customer contribution. Nonetheless, with the advancements in communication and information technologies, the interaction between customers and company is much higher compared to the past, and it is no longer solely controlled by the companies; thus, users can now impact companies by simultaneously playing two roles as value creators and as consumers. The present study develops a conceptual framework for value co-creation in small- and medium-sized tourism agencies. The sample consisted of 23 purposefully selected employees and managers of small- and medium-sized tourism agencies. Data were extracted from semi-structured interviews and analyzed with open and axial coding. For validity, an eight-person panel of experts was asked to review the framework and to apply corrective comments. The reliability was tested using a re-test method, which confirmed the reliability of the coding with a re-test reliability of 79%. Based on the findings, the proposed framework contains eight components including value inception, value conception, value risk, resource planning, platform, actors, co-creation process, co-created value, and learning process, whose components were identified and encoded.
Original languageEnglish
Article number213
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 25 Dec 2019


  • value co-creation
  • service sector
  • value risk
  • value inception
  • value conception
  • platform
  • product/service innovation
  • tourism industry


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