A Control-Oriented Voltage Tracking Design for Grid-Forming Based Modular Multilevel Converter

Wentao Liu*, Tamas Kerekes, Remus Teodorescu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article in JournalResearchpeer-review


Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) based on grid-forming control as a converter-driven interface for renewable energy sources are the development trend of the future electronics-dominated power grids. MMC offers outstanding voltage quality without an AC filter, which is very distinct from the AC topology of conventional two-level converters (TLC). However, most literature that studies the grid-forming MMC directly follows the voltage tracking control (VTC) principle of TLC and does not involve the voltage controller specifically for the MMC topology. In this paper, the design of the voltage controller is step-by-step deduced based on the topological properties of MMC. According to the analysis findings, the proportional link of the voltage loop can result in high-frequency oscillation and the proposed VTC with a sole integral link cooperating with inner current-loop control presents excellent dynamic performance. Finally, the proposed VTC is realized robustly in the laboratory prototype.


Conference14th IEEE International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems, PEDG 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work has been funded by the China Scholarship Council. The fund number is 202006220086.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IEEE.


  • grid-forming control
  • Modular multilevel converter
  • voltage tracking design


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