A Machine Learning Method for Modeling Wind Farm Fatigue Load

Yizhi Miao, Mohsen N. Soltani*, Amin Hajizadeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
52 Downloads (Pure)


Wake steering control can significantly improve the overall power production of wind farms. However, it also increases fatigue damage on downstream wind turbines. Therefore, optimizing fatigue loads in wake steering control has become a hot research topic. Accurately predicting farm fatigue loads has always been challenging. The current interpolation method for farm-level fatigue loads estimation is also known as the look-up table (LUT) method. However, the LUT method is less accurate because it is challenging to map the highly nonlinear characteristics of fatigue load. This paper proposes a machine-learning algorithm based on the Gaussian process (GP) to predict the farm-level fatigue load under yaw misalignment. Firstly, a series of simulations with yaw misalignment were designed to obtain the original load data, which considered the wake interaction between turbines. Secondly, the rainflow counting and Palmgren miner rules were introduced to transfer the original load to damage equivalent load. Finally, the GP model trained by inputs and outputs predicts the fatigue load. GP has more accurate predictions because it is suitable for mapping the nonlinear between fatigue load and yaw misalignment. The case study shows that compared to LUT, the accuracy of GP improves by 17% ((Formula presented.)) and 0.6% ((Formula presented.)) at the blade root edgewise moment and 51.87% ((Formula presented.)) and 1.78% ((Formula presented.)) at the blade root flapwise moment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7392
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • damage equivalent load
  • Gaussian process
  • machine learning


Dive into the research topics of 'A Machine Learning Method for Modeling Wind Farm Fatigue Load'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this