A Review of DC Shipboard Microgrids Part II: Control Architectures, Stability Analysis and Protection Schemes

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This article presents a review of coordinated control strategies, stability analysis, and fault management for dc shipboard microgrids (dc-SMGs). As an emerging application, the dc-SMG lacks a comprehensive summary of the control schemes. Considering the specific load profile in ships, this article discusses the coordinated control strategies of diesel generators and energy storage system. Depending on the maritime conditions, different operation modes are switched by the energy management system. Due to the presence of high-bandwidth controlled constant power load converters, negative impedance instability is induced. Meanwhile, the pulsed loads in dc-SMG may affect the voltage stability significantly. Small-signal and large-signal stability analysis can be used to evaluate the effect of these two types of loads. In the aspect of the shipboard protection system, this article presents the specific requirements of dc-SMG based on the standards. Lacking 'ground' in ships, solutions in designing the grounding system for dc-SMG is described. Besides, the short-circuit fault management consisting of fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration in dc-SMGs are summarized. Finally, the existing commercial dc ships are presented and compared to demonstrate the developing trends.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9616407
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)4105-4120
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • Marine vehicles
  • Propulsion
  • Generators
  • Voltage
  • Rectifiers
  • Energy storage
  • Seaports
  • pulsed power supplies
  • power system protection
  • dc shipboard microgrid
  • Coordinated control
  • stability


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