A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

Erik Ramsgaard Wognsen, Boudewijn Haverkort, Marijn Jongerden, Rene Rydhof Hansen, Kim Guldstrand Larsen

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact of usage (charge and discharge) profiles on cycle life. The wear score function can not only be used to rank different usage profiles, these rankings can also be used as a criterion for optimizing the overall lifetime of a battery-powered system.

We perform such an optimization on a nano-satellite case study provided by the company GomSpace. The scheduling of the system is modelled as a network of (stochastic) weighted timed games. In a stochastic setting, exact optimization is very expensive. However, the recently introduced Uppaal Stratego tool combines symbolic synthesis with statistical model checking and reinforcement learning to synthesize near-optimal scheduling strategies subject to possible hard timing-constaints. We use this to study the trade-off between optimal short-term dynamic payload selection and the operational life of the satellite.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFormal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems : 13th International Conference, FORMATS 2015, Madrid, Spain, September 2-4, 2015, Proceedings
Publication date22 Aug 2015
ISBN (Print)978-3-319-22974-4
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-22975-1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2015
EventInternational Conference, FORMATS 2015 - Madrid, Spain
Duration: 2 Sep 20154 Sep 2015
Conference number: 13th


ConferenceInternational Conference, FORMATS 2015
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science

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