A Sigfox Module for the Network Simulator 3

Muhammad Naeem, Michele Albano, Davide Magrin, Brian Nielsen, Kim Guldstrand Larsen

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/conference proceedingArticle in proceedingResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, Sigfox has earned a prominent place in the Low-Power Wide-Area Network arena, attracting the attention of industry, academia, and standards development organizations. As sensors and actuators used in the Sigfox devices aim to be operated for a long time with no maintenance, Sigfox's low energy consumption characteristics are part of its appeal to real-world applications. Prior to the work described in this paper, Network Simulator 3 had no support for the Sigfox protocol, and this paper presents a module to simulate the Sigfox protocol. The module is parametric with respect to the energy consumed by devices in different states, and we present simulation results obtained by calibrating the model using measurements obtained from a real Sigfox hardware module. Moreover, this work models a battery that is affected by self-discharge current. By means of this ns-3 module, it is possible to simulate a scenario prior to its deployment, thus helping with planning the deployment itself. To showcase the benefits of our work, we designed a behavioral model of devices using different communication strategies, and we present results on how long a device lasts and how much data delivery costs for different strategies. We plan to contribute the module to the ns-3 App Store.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2022 Workshop on ns-3
Number of pages8
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Publication date22 Jun 2022
ISBN (Electronic)9781450396516
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2022
Event14th Workshop on Network Simulator, WNS3 2022 - Virtual, Online, United States
Duration: 22 Jun 202223 Jun 2022


Conference14th Workshop on Network Simulator, WNS3 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityVirtual, Online
Sponsorns-3 Consortium
SeriesACM International Conference Proceeding Series

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research was supported by the Innovation Fund Denmark under the Distributed ONline monitoring of the Urban waTer cycle (DoNUT) project; by the ERC Advanced Grant LASSO; by the Villum Investigator Grant S4OS.


  • battery lifetime
  • Digital wireless sensors
  • IoT
  • ns-3 model
  • Sigfox
  • Uppaal SMC


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