A software for testing and training visuo-motor coordination for upper limb control

Anderson Souza Oliveira, Carina Østervig Andersen, Cathrine Brix Grimstrup, Freja Pretzmann, Nicklas Haugaard Mortensen, Miguel Nobre Castro, Natalie Mcharacz-Kersting

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Background: Developing methods to accelerate improvements in motor function are welcomed in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe changes in brain activity related to the execution of motor tasks implemented on a software – the NeuroMaze – developed specifically to stimulate speed-accuracy tradeoff. New Method: The NeuroMaze was tested in eleven young and healthy individuals in a single experimental session. The tasks consisted in moving a square appearing on the monitor by holding and dragging it with a mouse across paths of different widths (wide [2 cm] vs intermediate [1.5 cm] vs narrow [1 cm] widths). The mouse cursor speed and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) from the frontal, somatosensory and motor areas were recorded. Results: The mouse speed is reduced by 15 ± 6% and 48 ± 7% from the wide to the intermediate and narrow paths respectively (p < 0.005). Moreover, there was a greater beta EEG relative power in the narrow path in the frontal area of the brain when compared to the wide path (p < 0.05). Similarly, the narrow path reduced the gamma EEG relative power in motor/sensorimotor areas when compared to the wide path (p < 0.05). Comparison with existing methods: The NeuroMaze is introduced as a method to elicit speed-accuracy tradeoff, and the authors are not aware of specific methods to establish fair comparisons. Conclusion: The NeuroMaze creates conditions to stimulate brain areas related to motor planning, sensory feedback and motor execution using speed-accuracy tradeoff contexts. Therefore, the NeuroMaze may induce adaptations in patients undergoing upper limb rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108310
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • Clinical rehabilitation
  • EEG
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Speed-Accuracy tradeoff
  • motor control


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