A THD-Based Fault Protection Method Using MSOGI-FLL Grid Voltage Estimator

Wael Al Hanaineh*, Jose Matas, Jorge El Mariachet, Peilin Xie, Mostafa Bakkar, Josep M. Guerrero

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
20 Downloads (Pure)


The rapid growth of the distributed generators (DGs) integration into the distribution systems (DSs) creates new technical issues; conventional relay settings need to be updated depending on the network topology and operational mode as fault protection a major challenge. This emphasizes the need for new fault protection methods to ensure secure protection and prevent undesirable tripping. Total harmonic distortion (THD) is an important indicator for assessing the quality of the grid. Here, a new protection system based on the THD of the grid voltages is proposed to address fault events in the electrical distribution network. The proposed protection system combines the THD with the estimates of the amplitude voltages and the zero-sequence component for defining an algorithm based on a finite state machine (FSM) for the detection, identification, and isolation of faults in the grid. The algorithm employs communication lines between all the protective devices (PDs) of the system to transmit tripping signals, allowing PDs to be coordinated. A second order generalized integrator (SOGI) and multiple SOGI (MSOGI) are used to obtain the THDs, estimated amplitude voltages, and zero-sequence component, which allows for fast detection with a low computational burden. The protection algorithm performance is evaluated through simulations in MATLAB/Simulink and a comparative study is developed between the proposed protection method and a differential relay (DR) protection system. The proposed method shows its capability to detect and isolate faults during different fault types with different fault resistances in different locations in the proposed network. In all the tested scenarios, the detection time of the faults has been between 7–10 ms. Moreover, this method gave the best solution as it has a higher accuracy and faster response than the conventional DR protection system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number980
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • distribution system
  • fault detection
  • fault protection
  • total harmonic distortion
  • Algorithms
  • Electricity
  • Computer Systems
  • Physical Phenomena
  • Communication


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